Mars, Volcanic eruption, Volcano, NASA, Arabia Terra Craters Caused by Thousands of Ancient Volcanic Super-Eruptions! Collapsed Calderas!
Now thousands of ancient super eruptions have been detected on mars according to geophysical research letters. This is on science alert now, if we think that mars is an inhospitable place, now were not wrong. It seems that the planets current state is relatively mild and quiet in comparison to its distant past. Roughly four billion years ago, a region of the red planet called arabia, terra experienced thousands of powerful and explosive volcanic super eruptions. It filled the mars atmosphere with so much dust and toxic gases that each one would have altered the martian climate for decades. At a time these took place over a span of about 500 million years, meaning that early mars, much like early earth was once a very different place from what it looks like today. Each one of these eruptions would have had a significant climate impact. Of course, maybe the released gas made the atmosphere, thicker or blocked the sun and made the atmosphere colder. This is what geologist patrick welley of nasas good art space flight center explains to us. Let me support my patreon account since youtube has again demonetized my youtube channel. The daily posts are five videos daily and they are totally different from what i have on my youtube channel. Thank you so much for your support and that you find all my content so interesting. Youll find the patreon account details in the description box below he says. Modelers of martian climate will have some work to do to try to understand the impact of the volcanoes on mars atmosphere.
Super eruptions are the most powerful of all known volcanic eruptions with a magnitude of eight, the highest scale of the volcanic explosivity index. A super volcanic eruption spews more than a thousand cubic kilometers of material thats 240 cubic miles into the atmosphere and onto the surrounding terrain for up to thousands of kilometers. Although it was a long time ago that arabia, teriya terra of mars experiences activity, welly and his team were able to uncover the evidence of the martian surface from data recovered by the mars reconnaissance orbiters compact resonance, imaging spectrometer for mars or chrism. For short, the terrain is an interesting one pocketed with huge depressions that have been interpreted as impact craters. This is not unreasonable. Mars is covered with the things, but in 2013 paper suggested a different origin, not impact craters at all, but calderas. These are depressions left behind. After a super, volcano has blown its stack and once the magma is evacuated, the rock above has no structural support. It collapses into a sort of a huge sinkhole murli, and his team were intrigued by this idea that it can be hard to tell impact craters and calderas apart without looking at them more closely. So they looked, they looked for something else. The massive volume of volcanic ash that would have been deposited in these colossal eruptions that 2013 paper had also modeled how much material should have been ejected. Another paper suggested that arabia, terra terrain could contain ash deposits from ancient eruptions and yet another worked out the effect of martian atmosphere that would have had on ash dispersal.
He says we picked it up at the point and said: okay. Well, these are minerals that are associated with altered. Volcanic ash, which has already been documented, so now were going to look at how the minerals are disturbed attributed to see. If they follow the pattern, we would expect to see from super eruptions. This is what volcanologist, alexandra matea novak of john hopkins applied physics laboratory said because arabia terra is eroded to show layers of rock the team look took their volcanic mineral profiles started analyzing. They found layer, deposits, indicative and diagnostic of altered volcanic ash throughout that region. These include aluminum dominant minerals such as mont mori, lonite, immogolite and alophane, a three dimensional topographic map of arabia. Terra then revealed how these minerals were layered. They were exactly where they were predicted to have fallen four to three and a half billion years ago. And finally, the predicted volume of volcanic fallout allowed the team to figure out how many individual eruptions there had been and its huge. They were somewhere between a thousand and two thousand huge individual super eruptions over half a billion years. Thats amazing. The researchers estimate that over half a dozen super volcanoes might manage this activity if each erupted every couple million years. This is really strange. The researchers said super volcanoes here on earth are not found in clusters like this. They appear in regions that include other types of volcanoes as well. Its not like mars only has one type of volcano either.
So why should arabia terra appear so exclusively to host volcanic monsters, and why have we found? We have not found any other super volcanoes on mars. People are going to read our paper and go huh. How? How could mars do that? How can such a tiny planet melt enough rock to power thousands of super eruptions in one location? This is what geologist jacob richardson of nasa good artists asks. He says, i hope these questions bring about a lot of other research. This is on science alert by geophysical research, letters.