Ozone Layer, Earth, Carbon sequestration, Ozone depletion, Atmosphere Hydrogen: what are the multicoloured options for this fuel?
The element is, after all, the fuel of the stars and by far away is the most abundant element in the universe. Helium is the next most prevalent and together the amount to about 97 of the total abundance of all elements. But in our present discussion it is hydrogen gas h2, which is the key. There is very little of it in the atmosphere and on earths surface layers. Really the element exists largely as water h2o. The appeal of hydrogen as a as a fuel is in its cleanliness. Two molecules of h2 react with one of oxygen gas o2 to form two molecules of water, h2o and a lot of energy, but we need to make the h2 gas and generally, that is from the reaction of a carbon source with water and sometimes with some oxygen. If the carbon source is black coal, then the hydrogen gas so called has been labeled black hydrogen. If it is from ground brown coal lignite, then it is labeled as brown hydrogen. If natural gas is predominantly methane and is the carbon source, this is labeled as gray hydrogen, as well as h2 gas, which is the same whichever source it comes from. There are byproducts of the oxides of carbon, mostly co2. The ways to make this a low carbon fuel, either as blue hydrogen or as green hydrogen blue hydrogen, requires extra steps in production say from black or gray, hydrogen, which extracts the co2 and stores it thats.
Carbon capture and storage called ccs, and we look at this. In another video, both steps do have plants being tested. Green hydrogen is completely different generally. Water is the source, it is the reverse of the burning of hydrogen and it needs a large input of energy, either as light or electricity to be green. That energy has to be produced using a sustainable source. From the figures available in 2018, the production of hydrogen amounted to nearly 120 million tons, and much of it was as a byproduct most commonly of the drug production of chlorine gas by electrolysis about 800 000 tons. Only was produced by green or blue roots, the majority of hydrogen produced is used for chemical production. Much is used to make ammonia largely for fertilizer, and another significant proportion is in the petrochemical industry and specific organics like methanol and from that acetic acid. There is relatively little for energy production at all. By comparison. Here is the energy used in that same year, billions of tons of oil equivalent per year use of hydrogen and transport is estimated to have been under 10 000 tons per year so to convert all of these demands into a supply of currency. Sustainable hydrogen production is a very steep climb. Indeed, in terms of transport, hydrogen does have some advantages over a lithium ion battery as it is at present. The energy density in mega joules per kilogram is vastly higher for a battery its only about two thirds of a mega joules per kilogram, but for hydrogen it is over 140, but in terms of volume, h2 has to be pressurized to have a higher energy density and A pressure of about 700 bar 700 atmospheres is often quoted.
Then the energy density per volume is about double that of some lithium ion batteries, but that needs a weighty cylinder to store safely. The emissions of co2 per sector in 2010 were much as you might have expected, with energy generation, the largest and transport, the second largest. So, how can harajun contribute to transport? A study reported in 2018 studied by transport and environment from brussels, provided the following comparisons for a sustainable car. In principle, the clean hydrocarbon fuel could be generated on the vehicle by first electrolysis of water to give hydrogen, secondly by capturing co2. And thirdly, conventional fuel can be generated by what is called a fissure trap synthesis. The car is then driven by an internal combustion engine. The overall energy efficiency was estimated to be only about 13 in such a vehicle, but if, instead the hydrogen is converted into electricity by a fuel cell, then there is a gain because of the much higher efficiency of electric motors. The overall efficiency is then about two and a half times larger, or about thirty percent in total. Alternatively, using a rechargeable battery, the energy efficiency of the car is another factor of two and a half times higher about 77. The hydrogen powered vehicle would be favored for large vehicles with long ranges where the higher energy storage of hydrogen can win out. Examples might be diesel buses, trucks and trains, and since the motor is an electric one there, there should be no emission of nox, volatile organics and particulates also were lost and, as a result, there would be an improvement of air quality and loss of ozone production.
In the troposphere there are potential applications of hydrogen as a fuel that can be greener once the appropriate means of manufacture have been expanded. This will be all the faster if the overall energy demand is reduced by more efficient heating and travel and doing less. As an example, there are developments envisaged at the port of rotterdam. Green hydrogen is planned to be made by electrolysis, using energy from wind power.