The fourth torrential planet from the sun is actually one of the smallest planets on the second one after the mercury in our solar system. However, this planet bears a lot of secrets: its one of the planet, which whole humanity looking for for a long time and its the most popular planet. In the recent media about exploring and potentially canalising lets in this video talk about some secrets that mars bears how its similar with our planet, earth or the particular features, and why we can found on the mars. We will see the data from recent research and rover crafts that exploring intensively mars for last several decades to understand the particular features which we observe on the surface of the mars, its conditions for potentially life, which can be there or life which could come there and Colonize it in terms of us people, we need to just briefly discuss the main properties of the mars which state it is on now and how its comparable, with our planet earth, since first telescopes were invented. People were observing the surface of the mars already from the earth back in the time, people observed particular lines on the surface of the mars, changing ice caps and were convinced that there must be some civilization already there. A lot of science fiction arose the time and people were sure that some canals were built on the mars. This planet is occupied by martians and as have similar conditions that on the earth.

However, the exploration of this planet, the 20th century, showed thats, not quite true. The mars surface preserved more bare land, heavily bombarded by numerous meteorites, the surface of the mars more dead appearing that we would like to think this planet was formed and the time when our planet formed and majority of the planets in our solar system about 4.6 billion Years ago, we know about the volcanic activity through the history of the mars, especially in the beginning of its life, which actually released a lot of heat from the core and cooled down the planet quite quickly. And we know that atmospheric water was likely in the frozen condition, although it was preserved, but very fast. It was swirled away by solar winds due to the very low atmospheric pressure and almost non existent atmosphere. There revisit my previous video about mars colonization, where i talked specifically about atmosphere why there is such a weak atmosphere on that planet and eventually, nevertheless, there was a water on that planet or still preserved only in the frozen state under the ground. The mars today is the very dry and dusty planet quite cold at times, and its been like that, since we people were observing, it therefore mars appear to be very similar to the earth planet. However, there is a dramatic differences between us and the mars. Its a similar terrestrial planet and has almost identical geographical features and a similar axial tilt which resulted in the seasons on the mars.

However, it has basically no atmosphere, no liquid water and wildly fluctuating temperatures on the surface. Although for us, the mars appear to be very red planet, we see the snow capped, looking poles, which mostly consist of dry or frozen carbon dioxide and the water water. Underneath and actually, if you observe through the sentence of the mars these ice caps, they will be changing similar like on our planet. Music in comparison to the earth as well. Mars is about half the diameter of the earth and much less dense thats. Why we have weaker gravity, in fact the mass of the mars its about 11 of earths, one, but because theres no oceans of the marshes, its just one land everywhere it has the same amount of dry land, as we have on the earth mastered a bit further From the sun than the earth about 228 million kilometers, which are fluctuate of course, depends on its movement along the ecliptical orbit. Because of that, it takes longer about 687 earth days to orbit the sun almost twice as long as for us to rotate around the sun and its orbit is the second most eccentric in the solar system after the mercury. However, scientists believe that in the past probably mars have more rounded orbit and changed due to gravitational influence from sun and other planets particular jupiter. A very big planet, as we say, the tilt of the mars is close to r1 25.19 degrees in comparison with 23.

44 degrees. For the earth and its mean that we have seasons there, however, the seasons a little bit longer on the mars due to its longer travel distance around the sun. We observe two satellites orbiting around the mars and actually those satellites, its the asteroids theyve, been trapped or maybe material have been ejected from its surface due to the impact and stay on its orbit. Therefore, is a two very small satellites, nothing in comparison with the moon, phobos and demons. For example, phobos is rotating around the marston distance, about six thousand kilometers, very close to it and very small, its radius. Only 11 kilometers its not circled like the moon, its very irregular of the shape and actually have some impact. Craters, on its surface theme, is even smaller and more distant from the mars rotating around on a distance about 23.5 thousand kilometers away from its surface, and its right is about six kilometers, very small, these two satellites small, although we know theyre there scientists suggested – maybe there Are some other bodies that rotates around the mars theyve been trapped similar by its gravity? Therefore, we can conclude that all the similarities in differences between the mars and the earth caused such a different condition there. So you can say mars its. Maybe the future of the earth sandy suggested this planet had the plate tectonic and active volcanism on it like we do have right now on our planet. However, its exhausted itself and volcanoes were observed on the surface are dormant.

Now the location of the vulcanus suggested that plate tectonics actually took place in the past and also the differences. For example, difference between northern and southern pole suggested different crust mantle there. Maybe because this planet is smaller and its exhaust itself much faster than our earth. For example, the core cooled down much faster its caused all these problems with magnetic field around it, loss of atmosphere, the water very important for life and, as a result, faster loss of other minerals, high radiation on the surface, which resulted all in such a dead appearance. For life right now, however, some recent research has suggested maybe theres some still some kind of form of life preserved in the ground under the ground similar like in our earth, we have so much microbial form of life within the crust of our earth in the caves Similar, we might find something leftovers on the mars. However, we need bad equipment that could dig climb into the caves on the mars, which will go there in the future. Nevertheless, four life forms like animals and humans. Mars is not very convenient. The gravity, atmospheric pressure, radiation and very low temperatures, all that will cause, if not immediate, but soon, death on its surface, all these features end up in particular, surface on the mars, which we observe now better before. As i said, people observe only particular lines on the surface, but the moment when we start orbiting around the mars photographing it regularly and now even walking in it in forms of drawers.

Special machines, of course, not humans. Yet its revealed as a very interesting geological features on the mars which make us think more about the mars like the earth or the mars like the earth in the future, high quality, pictures and observation of surface of the mars, which we can see a hundred percent. Not like we can see on our earth earth discovered seventy five percent of the water, so majority of the earths surface weve never seen in real life but mars, is all exposed there and when the caps on the poles are melting through the seasons, we can see More of the surface of that little red planet, majority of the mars surface covered with regolith, loose conglomerates of broken rocks, dirt and dust and because theres not much atmosphere. The solar wind strips away molecules into the space, therefore about 95 carbon dioxide, three percent of nitrogen and two percent of argon with other gases right now, kind of composition, of the mars atmosphere, remnants of this atmosphere and in this very poor atmosphere, we observe ice clouds, Mostly made of carbon dioxide lets talk about some geographical features on the surface of the mass, the biggest one is that the mars has increasingly different northern and southern hemisphere. As i said, most of the northern hemisphere is lower in levation than the southern one. Up to six kilometers, it also has far fewer impact craters, so its smoother and more uniform surface explaining that across the northern hemisphere appears to be much thinner than in the southern one.

Therefore, we cannot explain exactly why theres such a difference, we can suggest that volcanic activity tectonics and impacts its the main processes that affect the surface of the mars. We see right now, Music, the most striking features you can see on mars its the mountains, which are sleeping volcanoes or inactive volcanos. We have two areas: thirstys bulge and the elysium volcanic complexes which contain several volcanoes, grouped together. Tariffs. Bulge covers about 25 percent of the planet surface and lies seven to ten kilometers above it, and here we can find the mons olympus. Shield vulcana is the largest mountain or volcano as well. In the solar system, mind olympus very large and its as high as 22 kilometers, which is more than three times higher than the highest mountain on our planet. You can maybe explain it that the gravity is not as strong there. Its only forty about forty percent of the one we have on our planet and it was easier for material to bulge and build up. It also can suggest much stronger internal forces back in the ancient times of activity on the mars Music. As i said before, scientists suggested there was no plate tectonic on mars. However, very recent discoveries on its surface shows that there was plate tectonic. We see a lot of steep cliffs flat walls of canyons and we see the faults at work and also we observe their mars. Volcanoes are concentrated in two different areas. The large valley system, known as the valles marineris, is the deepest in the solar system as well.

Take up a quarter of the planet circumference, it is in fact a plate boundary as well. There is a horizontal movement along the plates. We know just about that fault system very well on mars. So far, the scientists believe that the mars tectonic system is much younger than on earth Music. We observe numerous impact, craters and basins on the mars southern hemisphere. For example, hells basin is the largest and its about 1.8 kilometers in diameter. Scientists believe that, as old as 3.8 billion years, which is dated back to the period of heavy bombardment of the mars and other planets, also our earth and our solar system and, of course, the ice caps at the poles which changing with the seasons. As i said, webs are four seasons on the mars they are just longer and of the right lengths. Temperatures can get as low as 143 degrees celsius at the ice caps in the winters and the ice beneath the surface freezes and melts depending on the temperature. We know that carbon dioxide, which observed on these ice caps melting points much lower than for the water. So when the all carbon dioxide sublimated from the surface, we can observe the frozen water there. The atmospheric pressure on the mars is much lower than the earth as well and its so thin that there is very little to block the surface from the suns heat. There are ice clouds, probably coast when the wind kick up dust, while one of the red planets biggest weather features is dust storms which can last up two months.

I observe some water erosion features in surface of the mars. Real wallace is one of the valleys on the mars that looks as they might have been carved out by the water movement. Many of these valleys contain screws on the floors they may be rich in iron Music. I observed the sand dunes made of regolith mix of soil sand dust and broken rocks, which drifted into dunes on mars surface scientists once heard that they were stationary, but observations have shown that the dunes actually move due to prevailing winds and, of course, every day were Receiving more high resolution images from the mars and theres so much to study for a geologist on that interesting planet. Maybe one day our mars craft will go down into the craters or canyons and sample the rocks within from the slopes and will tell us more about geology, history and life on that planet. Music. I hope in this short video you get some interesting information about the mars. However, keep in mind not just the similarities to our planet and how be interesting to visited it, but also the differences Music mars. The one planet which just start living the inhabited zone around our sun and the temperatures on this planet a little bit too low for us to strive like we do on our kind in beautiful earth. However, it doesnt mean we shouldnt, explore it, and future century will be the mars century in terms of exploration of other planets.

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