These are some of the stories we talk about on this episode of scientifics. I am mohan abbasu and every week on the prince scientifics, i take you through some of the top science stories of the week from across the globe. Rattlesnakes vigorously shake their tails to warn other animals of their presence, but this week scientists have discovered that the sound of the rattlesnakes tail has evolved to trick humans and other animals into thinking that the snakes are closer than they actually are. The rattlesnakes do this by increasing their rattling rate as potential threats approach. Boris shagnot, a researcher at the university of kras in austria, was visiting an animal facility when he noticed that the rattling increased in frequency when he approached rattlesnakes but decreased when he walked away. Based on this observation, his team conducted experiments in which objects appeared to move towards the rattlesnakes as the potential threats approached, the rattling rate increased to approximately 40 hertz and then abruptly switched to an even higher frequency range between 60 and 100 hertz to test how this Change in rattling rate, is perceived by animals. The researchers designed a virtual reality environment, in which 11 participants were moved through a grassland towards a hidden snake, its rattling rate increased as the humans approached. The listeners were asked to indicate when the sound source appeared to be one meter away. The sudden increase in the rattling frequency caused the participants to underestimate their distance to the virtual snake.

The research shows that snakes do not just rattle to advertise their presence, but have evolved to have a sonic distance warning device similar to the one included in cars while driving backwards. The study shows that, as mammals evolved to develop auditory perception, the snakes rattling also co evolved, allowing snakes that were best able to avoid being stepped on to survive. Meanwhile, a team of researchers from china and canada has identified a turtle egg fossil from somewhere between 66 and 145 million years ago, that contains an embryo finding the eggs of dinosaurs or turtles from that period, known as the cretaceous period, is extremely rare. That is because eggs tend to be fragile and they do not survive even in prime conditions. Finding a fossilized embryo still inside such an egg is even more rare. This particular egg was discovered by a farmer who had inadvertently dug up several strange looking rocks. One of those turned out to be a turtle egg. The researchers found that the egg was from a turtle that had belonged to a land dwelling species. The species had been wiped out by the same asteroid, impact that killed dinosaurs 66 million years ago. The researchers suggest that the ancient turtle likely was not much different from the modern turtles, with one exception, that is, they had an extremely thick eggshell. Also this week, scientists have found further evidence to show that the strength of the earths magnetic field has an approximately 200 million year.

Long cycle, researchers from university of liverpool performed thermal and microwave analysis on rock samples from ancient lava flows in eastern scotland to measure the strength of the geomagnetic field during key time periods. The study also analyzed the reliability of all of the measurements from samples from 200 to 500 million years ago, collected over the last 80 years. The team found that between 332 and 416 million years ago, the strength of the geomagnetic field preserved in these rocks was less than quarter of what it is today and similar to a previously identified period of low magnetic field strength that started around 120 million years ago. The study supports the theory that strength of the earths magnetic field is cyclical and weakens every 200 million years. Meanwhile, researchers have discovered the widest known, coral at australias, great barrier reef measuring as much as 10.4 meters across the coral has been named, mugadambi, which translates to big coral. The name has been given by the manbarra people, who are custodians of the palm islands magnetic island and an area of mainland queensland. The ancient coral was found off the coast of the palm islands. It has survived coral bleaching, invasive species, cyclones and human activities for almost 500 years. Muga dhambi is also the sixth tallest coral measured in the great barrier reef at 5.3 meters tall based on the colonys height, the team estimates it to be 421 to 438 years old. Given that the corals at the great barrier reef are experiencing significant damage and bleaching due to global warming, scientists believe that studying mugadami may help reveal what makes corals resilient.

Meanwhile, a new study this week predicts that any sea level rise in antarctica will be countered by an increase in snowfall associated with a warmer polar atmosphere using modern methods to calculate projected changes in sea level. Researchers discovered that two ice sheets of greenland and antarctica respond very differently, reflecting their distinct local climates. The research is based on the new generation of climate models, which are used in the newly published intergovernmental panel on climate change or the ipccs sixth assessment report. The researchers found that there is very little change in projected sea level rise from antarctic ice sheet. This is because increased mass loss triggered by warmer oceans is countered by mass gain by increased snowfall, which is associated with the warmer polar atmosphere. However, the same is not true for the north pole, where global warming and subsequent melting of the ice will lead to a sea level rise. This is mohanabasu special correspondent at the print. If you like our videos, you can now join the prince youtube membership to get special membership perks, such as early access to our key reports, as well as exclusive community content on the youtube channel.