Certainly, the biggest story of the last year is the confirmation of liquid water on mars. In september of 2020, scientists confirmed three underground reservoirs or lakes around the south pole in the ultimate scopular region, although just barely liquid. This underground water is so salty that it keeps its liquid state even under the low atmospheric pressure. The salts of perchlorates form brine or briny water, which is five to twenty times saltier than seawater. Blind pools are, of course, also found on earth, for example, on the sea floor of the deep seas in antarctic ocean. The discoverer is still hotly debated, since the formation of such lakes would require higher geothermal heat in the region than we currently observe. However, the lakes would be able to survive for several million years if there was some geothermal flux in the past Music. The next discovery comes from our favorite lender insight. Before i get into what has been achieved, i have to report sad news about insights more after two years of trying to dig into the surface of mars, the mall was defeated. The progress made last year inspired my first video ever but, alas, it was not enough and the unexpected soil properties could not be overcome. The team will now concentrate on inside seismometer, which brought the first comprehensive proof that mars is seismically active, published in february 2020. The research analyzes marsquakes that were detected by the instrument since it began operating in 2019.. The analysis shows the existence of deeper seismic events, though incredibly weak.

Thanks to the recorded seismic waves, the scientists were able to peer inside mars and bring us an overview of its structure under the thin regulate and slightly thicker competent rock layer is highly fractured. Crust containing pockets of blood house regulate is basically soil. A martian one in this case, competent rock, is solid sturdy rock that won’t collapse. If you make a hole through it, the fractures in the crust could be caused by two possible processes. The barrage of meteors and cooling of the planet’s interior, similar to how breadcrust cracks when the loaf cools it is likely that the movement that produced recorded quakes was caused by the cooling of the planet. The pockets of volatiles are readily vaporizable materials, for example, in earth’s crust. This would be water and co2 on mars. It is likely to be perchlorate. Researchers were able to trace the epicenter of the two strongest events to cerber’s fosse region, a region which is not only seismically active. It might be volcanically active as well. This next study aims at volcanic activity as recent as 53 000 years in the cerberus vosse region. Cerberus fosse is a relatively young volcanic feature in the elysium planitia just south of elysium, once the two main trenches around 1 000 kilometers long are fissures formed when the martian crust pulled apart. The h of the volcanic plane can be determined by counting the number of craters and measuring their diameters, then, comparing with other areas of mars, based on this method, the estimated age of the region is less than 1 million years.

The same technique was applied to the mantling unit next to zunul crater, and the estimated age of the 220 square kilometer feature was between 53 and 210 000 years. That might sound like a long time ago, but from a geological perspective it could mean mars is not so dead. After all, it has been long assumed that the wallis, deltas and clay deposits implied that mars was once warm and wet planet or was it new. Research shows the similarities between earth’s subglacial erosion and erosion features on mars rivers flowing from a stream, while groundwater, stepping and rivers running under ice can look very similar. There are minor differences, though, such as width and depth fluctuations over the course of the river network, and statistical analysis can discern these variations. This paper develops and applies such statistical methods to compare 66 volume networks containing over 10 000 volus and the large number of subglacial walley networks, 22 hints at mars being colder in the past, while the cold mars hypothesis has been here for some time. This finding solves several issues: the hypothesis had with geomorphological features we see without needing the planet to be worn in a time when the sun was fainter. These findings also hint at the amount of water that was present at least 50 million cubic kilometers, or about one sixth, the volume of atlantic ocean, which is ten times the water we currently see on mars. Some of this water might be hidden deep underground, where it possibly seeped through the fractures in the crust, but some of the water escaped to space, and it turns out that it might be more than we thought.

Data from the maven spacecraft, such as unusually high amounts of water in the upper atmosphere of mars, it was assumed that water molecules could not reach martian upper atmosphere. Since the temperature drops with altitude which causes the water to condense. However, it seems that seasonal and weather changes such as dust storms, can heat up the atmosphere enough for the water to reach heights of about 150 kilometers. There charged particles quickly split h2o into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, particularly hydrogen atoms are lighter than water molecules and thus easily escape the atmosphere. The calculations show that over the past billion years, mars could have lost as much as 90 000 cubic kilometers of water via this process, that is 4 times the volume of the great lakes or a little bit more than the volume of the caspian sea. Lastly, mars made its closest approach to earth for the next 15 years. You can check my video for details and because of that, free planned missions were launched in the summer. The united arab emirates, probe named hope, will study the atmosphere of mars and will be the quote first true, weather satellite next, the chinese yanwen one consisting of orbiter lander and rover, has the ambitious goal of finding evidence of life, mapping mars, studying soul, composition and atmosphere Of mars finally, nasa’s perseverance rover will explore jezebel crater, hoping to find signs of past life, prepare cash for sample return mission and try to produce oxygen using moxi.