Alzheimer’s disease, Genome editing, Genetics, Genome NsKxHfMYmQy | PresentationTube
Our class ends on a Thursday, not a Sunday, so I always like to be sure to advertise that to you all, so you can plan accordingly. So just keep that in mind and make sure you watch for those emails in announcements in the classroom as well lets dive right in today we have two chapters to focus on and they do kind of go hand in hand. A lot of chapter 11 talks about the beginning of life and childhood, and also a lot about genetics and then chapter 12 goes through death and dying. So its kind of like the full circle of life is covered. Make sure you do read those two chapters. We are going to cover the content thats going to give you the biggest bang for your buck in terms of your quiz. So there are some things in the chapters that we will not cover that are as important. So you do want to make sure you read through everything thats in those chapters were going to start by focusing on genetics and heredity and just start with definitions, and I will tell you the definition of genetics is important for your quiz. What genetics is its a science that accounts for natural differences in resemblances among organisms relate it by descent, so in example, children in the family all have blue eyes. The biological parents also have blue eyes the science that explained these similarities is genetics heredity. This is the science of or the process by which organisms past genetic traits on to their offspring, so you can see theres a little bit of difference.
They are closely related in terms of definition, but there is a distinction between the two. Next were going to talk about gene and genome, so a gene is a tiny segment of DNA found on a chromosome within a cells nucleus, so genes are carried by chromosomes and are responsible for all human characteristics. Everything from I skin hair, color to even height body type and intelligence genome. What that term means its all the DNA in an organism including its genes, so its just a larger scale. Moving on to something, I think, is pretty darn cool its the Human Genome Project. Hopefully youve heard of it, it was a scientific project funded by the United States government way back in nineteen ninety and it was completed in the year 2000. The purpose was to map all the humans genes and there are 46 genes that they mapped the reason why thats important is then we can start to identify where certain diseases can stem from and how to correct the gene if it does have an abnormality or a Mutation, there are lots of different reasons why genetic testing is currently used. This isnt something your quiz focuses on necessarily, except for forensic testing and Ill talk about that in a second, but I think its important to look at all the different ways. Genetic testing is used. Its kind of interesting I find it pretty fascinating, I do when I focus for a second on forensic testing, so the medical examiner is attempting to eliminate a suspect in a crime that medical examiner might use forensic DNA testing in that situation, so thats important to know What forensic testing is for your quiz also another reason why genes are so important is theres genetic diseases, so a permanent change in DNA is usually a cause for genetic disease and its that permanent change in the DNA is called a mutation, and that word is important For your quiz, this list is not something you have to memorize and I know its quite small, but it does come from your textbook, so you can always refer to it in there.
The one disease i want to point out is alzheimers Alzheimers disease in stem cells. That develop into neuronal tissues can be used to treat patients with Alzheimers, so its important to note that were getting to those advances based on genetic testing on how to treat some of these genetic diseases. That is important for your quiz that the stem cells that develop into neuronal tissues can be used to treat patients with Alzheimers again dont take the time to memorize all the genetic diseases, its something I do want you to look over and you know make note of It is not something thats going to be on your quiz, genetic discrimination, so obviously, with all this genetic information out there we can now, you know, understand the different genes that are within the body we can test for certain things. Obviously, once we have this information, it can be used for good or bad and it developed into where the government was worried that there would be some sort of discrimination. So what that means is differential treatment based on actual or presumed genetic differences. So we want to safeguard people against that. There are laws that do prohibit genetic discrimination, its partially due to a study done by Harvard med schools, lisa Geller. There are now these laws in place to prevent genetic discrimination, the one that we are most important, our most focused on for your quiz is Gina, and that means genetic information nondiscrimination act.
What I want you to know is what it does, so in 2008, gina was passed to prohibit discrimination in employment based on genetic information, so it helps prevent discrimination and employment based on genetic information. Hipaa youre, probably already familiar with weve, talked about that a DA. I think weve talked about that one as well. Americans with Disabilities Act. Ace CA is the Affordable Care Act, so all of these are hopefully familiar to you at this point. Next lets touch on genetic engineering. What that means is its a manipulation of DNA within the cells of plants, animals or even other organisms, and its done via synthesis alteration or repair to ensure that certain harmful traits will be eliminated in offspring and that desirable traits will youre and be passed on. It sounds good, but there is a lot of controversy with it due to unforeseen of effects. So when we get into thinking oh, we could eliminate certain traits well whos to decide which traits we want to eliminate whos in control of that. So you can see where that could create a little controversy next well touch on cloning. Cloning is the process by which organisms are created, a sexually usually from a single cell of a parent organism, and it is quite controversial an example where cloning is used. Farm animals are sometimes cloned to produce medical, useful substances xenotransplantation its a big long word is the transplantation of animal tissues and organs into humans.
There are certain compatibilities that make it possible and theres also some controversy surrounding that process as well. So some of the objections to genetic engineering lets go through these. This is just for your knowledge, its not necessarily something thats going to be asked on the quiz. I just thought it was interesting and wanted to include it for you. Cloning does not always your yield. A viable offspring, so these are all the objections to genetic engineering. Thirty percent of live clones are affected with large offspring syndrome and other debilitating conditions, so sometimes things dont end up as an exact replica. A large failure rate in human clones is unacceptable. Many clones die prematurely. Scientists do not know how cloning affects mental development and a lot of people have the mindset that its unethical to using animals in this manner. Gene therapy so lets touch on this. This is treating harmful genetic diseases or traits by eliminating or modifying the harmful gene, and we talked about a little bit with Alzheimers how theyre coming up with ways to treat that theres a variety of applications stations. The one I want you to focus on is somatic gene therapy. It can be used for patients with severe genetic disorders and it involves inserting normal copies of the gene, so thats, the one I want you to know. Somatic gene therapy involves inserting normal copies of the gene. Next were going to talk about infertility by definition, it means the failure to conceive for a period of 12 months or longer due to a deviation from or an interruption of, normal structure or function of any part of the reproductive part, organ or system.
So there are options out there for couples that struggle with infertility. Here are some listed in vitro fertilization. This is where fertilization takes place outside the womans body in a test tube. So if fertilization specialist brings an infertile couples, eggs and sperm together in a test tube and when fertilization occurs, they then transport, the resulting embryo back into the females. Uterus artif are artificial insemination and surrogacy. The one thats not listed on here that your quiz also asks about is adoption, so any adult who shows the desire to be a fit parent may adopt a child. The one type of adoption your quiz tends to focus on is agency adoption. So this is a type of adoption generally involving placing children who have been orphaned or whose parents have been lost or relinquished parental rights through abuse abandonment or the inability to support them and again thats agency adoption. Children have rights and there are laws that regulate that. The one in red is the one I want you to focus on parens, patra and thats, a legal doctrine that gives the state the authority to act in the childs best interest, so its that, if something bad is going on, the state can step 10 best based On the childs best interest, so an example: estate agency removes a ten year old child from the home of parents who abuse him. The legal doctrine that allows the state to act in the best interest of the child is pars petra.
So do remember that term. For your quiz next were get starting to get into our next chapter, so youll notice we are switching more to death and dying at this point. Brain injury can be caused by a number of different ways, but often time the result is coma or persistent, vegetative state. So a comas referred to as a deep stupor, from which the patient cannot be aroused by external stimuli. The persistent vegetative state is different. This is a severe mental impairment, with irreversible cessation of higher functions of the brain, which is most often caused by damage to the cerebral cortex, and I want you to remember. The damage for PBS or persistent vegetative state happens more than likely in the cerebral cortex. When were talking about death. Oftentimes people will have an autopsy done so its a post mortem or after death examination that helps determine the cause of death, andor, obtains physical evidence or Im. Sorry physiologic evidence when necessary. So sometimes we know how they died, but we need to get more evidence as to the specifics or sometimes we dont know how someone died and we need to find out. Autopsies are performed in hospitals and may confirm or correct clinical diagnosis. Theyre also performed – and I want you to remember this – for your quiz in cases in which a death is suspicious or due to homicide. So we know someone did not die on their own accord, but was killed in some manner and we have to find out how they were killed in the thats, where an autopsy would also come in handy talking about the process of dying oftentimes patients.
Get to a point where their disease is going to be fatal. We know that that theyre on their last moments of life or last days or months of life and the doctor may order hospice care. So the hospice is designed to treat or Target that Im. Sorry Hospice is not designed to treat or target the underlying disease, so in hospice care its more to keep them comfortable during their final moments, its not to treat whats causing death to occur. There is a multi discipline team of caregivers that step in including doctors, nurses, home health, aides, social workers, physical therapists, among many others, theres, usually, facilities for hospice, I cant occur in the patients, home or nursing home and again they have hospice houses. Now. Another issue that comes up when were thinking of death and dying it is used in Asia or physician, assisted suicide. There are actually four different types. Your book goes through all four quite nicely. The one I want to focus on for your quiz is passive. Euthanasia, an example of passive euthanasia is a patient asks a doctor. Can you help me die in peace? The doctor agrees to withhold medical treatment for the patient. That would be an example of passive euthanasia, quincel intently. Your quiz also focuses on wakes, which is a type of way to honor the dead that originates from an ancient custom and the ancient custom involved. Keeping watch over the deceased hoping life would return the next part on the patient self determination act.
This is not covered on your quiz, however, I find it very important to cover, so I wanted to make sure to go through this PSD, a or patient self determination act of 1990 requires providers to ask patients if they have advanced directives. Advanced directives could be one of four things it can be a living will. A living will is an advanced directive that specifies an individuals end of life wishes. It could be durable power of attorney and thats an advanced directive that confers upon a designated authority to make a variety of legal decisions. On behalf of the person and its usually involving the health care decisions, they may have a health care proxy and thats a durable power of attorney issued for purposes of health care decisions only so they dont have any other legal rights other than the health care decisions. A do not resuscitate order are a DNR thats when admitted to a hospital. Most patients are allowed to state whether they want to be revived if their heart stops. So all of those are different types of advanced directives and the patients have those rights based on that patient self determination act of 1990. We are at the point where its your turn for any questions or clarifications or concerns. So if you do have something spinning in your head, thats, not making much sense or you need additional help – definitely seek me out as Im always here to help you my door is always open.
You have my email address, thats the quickest way to get ahold of me. So definitely, if need be, you sit. Dont forget all of your assignments. This week are due by sunday, of course, look over the upcoming due dates so that you know and understand when everything is due and as always, our information presented today did come from your textbook.