But, first of all, this probe right here originally when the inside pro was launched. I personally wasnt really sure how this mission is going to go. For example, i knew back then that there is not going to be a lot of public interest in this mission, because its not going to be producing a lot of high quality images and its also unlikely to make any groundbreaking discoveries. At the same time, even within the first few weeks and few months of operation, it started to experience major problems, and so we werent really sure if this probe is going to survive for as long as it did but looks like. I was kind of proven wrong. It did discover something the scientists were hoping to find after at least a few years of operation. It was able to successfully analyze and, of course, discover exactly what happens inside the planet inside mars, and it did so by listening to various marsquakes, the quakes very similar to earthquakes that essentially produce two different types of waves. The compressional waves also known as p waves that propagate by pressing things together and increasing the density inside a typical object and the shear waves, also known as s waves that create a kind of up and down motion. As you see right here, the scientists have been studying these types of waves on earth for a very, very long time over a hundred years as a matter of fact, and it generally took the scientists approximately 100 years or so to work out how to use the Differences in speed of these different ways, while also listening to the reflection of these waves as they move inside the mantle and the core and as they reflect from various irregularities on the inside, to eventually figure out what exactly is happening inside our own planet.

With extreme precision, and so by using the observations from planet earth and using decades of experience of listening to these waves during the apollo missions, the scientists have also been able to work out how to use this on the moon to precisely measure the internal structure of Our own satellite, although in this case it did take them roughly around 4 decades or so, but now, after only a few years of listening for various waves on mars, the scientists have been able to work out exactly what happens inside mars as well. Making this a pretty important and pretty exciting discovery after all, but first the probe itself, as you might have heard, from some on the previous videos. In the last few months, the probe has been struggling to survive, unfortunately, because of the accumulation of dust on the solar panels. Within only a year, the panos went from being this to being almost entirely covered by dust and though initially the probe was able to generate approximately 5 000 watt hours of power. A week ago, this has decreased to only about 700 watt hours, which means that about 80 of power is no longer being generated, and to try to solve this, the nasa scientists have already tried so many different things. For example, they tried to shake off all of this dust by trying to vibrate and pulsate the solar array deployment motors, but unfortunately this was not very successful. It didnt really do as much as they thought it would do.

Then. Only a few months ago, they tried something a little bit different, actually something really brilliant. They tried to place or try to trickle a little bit of sand by using this excavating device. You see right here and by doing this, some of the dust was actually dislodged by the sand, but when they tried to do the second and third time the effects were much less dramatic, and so this was also, unfortunately, not really helping anything. And so because of this, the feature of this mission is currently not really certain. It still has enough energy to listen to different earthquakes and to possibly do very minor experiments, but for anything major it no longer has enough power. But despite of this, the seis that you see right here, also known as the seismic experiment for interior structure, was able to record close to 800 different earthquakes, no marsquakes in the last couple of years, and this, of course allowed the scientists to very thoroughly study the Structure of mars, at least from the region where the probe was located – and this is actually the other interesting fact about this – the probe is located in this region, known as the elysium planitia, the region very close to this feature known as the cerberus fosa, and it Just so happens that the vast majority of all earthquakes that were detected by the mission came from this unusual region now heres. What cerberus fosa looks like its an unusual formation of these fissure like structures.

You see right here that looks sort of like this. On the inside, in the last few years, this region has been officially identified as a seismically and tectonically active region with some sort of an outflow happening two to maybe 10 million years ago, and even some recent volcanic deposits being as young as only 50 000 years. Implying, of course, that mars might have been volcanically active relatively recently. Now these strange formations are approximately 1200 kilometers across and today the scientists believe that, wherever formed them very likely resulted in a huge outflow of some sort of liquid. Now a lot of scientists think that its probably water liquid water that most likely escaped from these fissures and spread across a very large area creating these new formations. You see all over the place here, but the opposing theory to this is that maybe its actually not water, it could have also been lava or possibly even a mixture of both lava may be followed by liquid water, and because of this, this is an extremely intriguing Region that could potentially help scientists resolve a lot of mysteries about mars. But, as i mentioned, a lot of the earthquakes were coming from this region, which is actually really surprising, because the scientists originally expected that most earthquakes would be coming from the region known as tarsus. That has the biggest volcanoes in the solar system, including olympus mods. You see right here, but compared to earthquakes. A lot of these marsquakes were extremely weak in power only about three to four in magnitude, and this is actually because mars does not have tectonic plates like earth, and the tectonic plates are the reason for most earthquakes on mars.

The actual marsquakes are caused by the fact that, well, the planet is still cooling down and as it cools down it, sort of shrinks in size, and this shrinking causes the outer crust to slowly shrink in size and to start cracking on the outside. And as these cracks form around the surface, they start producing various marsquakes, and so after a few years and listening to nearly 800 different marsquakes 35 of these marsquicks were actually very useful for analyzing the internal structure and they provided all of the necessary data. For the three papers that you can find in the description below with each of the papers, essentially focusing on the individual part of the martian structure, the crust, the mantle and, of course, the core now in terms of crust. The main discovery here is that the crust is just a little bit thinner than expected, and it also might have two or three sub layers, so here its believed to be about 20 kilometers to maybe maximum 37 kilometers in depth. Although this is, of course, on this part of the planet, its actually quite possible that if we were to measure all of this from another part of mars, such as, for example, where the ocean used to be the crust might be a little bit thinner. Because we know that the ocean crest is usually thinner on earth as well, then, underneath that we have the mantle but on earth, the mantle is divided into several parts.

There is generally the upper mantle and the lower mantle on mars. However, it seems to be just one thing: mantle extending to about 1500 kilometers in depth, and today we know that one of the reasons our planet is still sort of hot on the inside and at the same time, one of the reasons why our planet is able To maintain the magnetosphere is actually because the lower mantle of planet earth have a lot of high pressure minerals on the inside that insulate the planet, allowing the iron core to stay much hotter than it would be otherwise on mars. However, because mantle seems to be more or less the same everywhere, it does not seem to insulate the core as well, which is maybe one of the reasons why the iron core of mars cooled down just enough to prevent the planet from maintaining magnetosphere. For a long time, but this is, of course just a speculation for now, and nobody really knows until further studies, but one unexpected discovery when it comes to martian crust was the fact that it was actually very highly enriched in various heat producing isotopes that are normally Responsible for warming up the planet, it had approximately 20 times more radioactive isotopes than the mantle underneath, and this would actually explain how mars could potentially have volcanoes on the surface in the crust, but not actually have a very hot insides, and so the martian volcanoes could Actually be the result of the activity of these radioactive isotopes from the crust itself, not really from the mantle like they are usually on earth and because on earth generally its associated with plate tectonics on mars.

The volcanoes might be produced in an entirely different way, which might also explain why some of them looks so extremely different from anything on planet earth. This right here is the biggest volcano in the solar system, the olympus mons, and we definitely do not have anything like this on planet earth or on any other object in the solar system. And lastly, when it comes to the iron core of mars. First of all, the scientists were able to confirm that it seems to be liquid. It also seems to be approximately 1800 kilometers in radius, and since this is much larger than the original predictions, it only implies that the core is very likely much less dense or it very likely contains a lot of lighter elements on the inside. Probably a lot more sulfur, oxygen, carbon and so on. The study even suggests that it could be approximately half the density of the iron core of our own planet simply because of the enrichment in these lighter elements, and this could one day help us explain why mars lost his magnetosphere so quickly, and so overall. So far, the mission has been really productive: a lot of discoveries, a lot of confirmations and a lot of mysteries as well. But for now the scientists are really hoping that, before insight finally loses all of its power, theyre able to detect at least one major marsquake, at least five in magnitude or possibly even higher, and this would require some sort of unexplained phenomena that weve never seen before.

But we know that these phenomena – and these unusual marsquakes have happened in the past, simply based on observations of a lot of different formations that already exist on the surface of mars. And so, if something like, this is detected its going to create so many different ass waves and p waves bouncing off the inner core, the mantle and so on that it might actually help the scientists clearly see pretty much everything inside the planet, but for now thats. Unfortunately, all we know until future missions or better even until a manned mission to mars were not really going to learn much else about the core of mars or about a lot of other internal mysteries of this beautiful planet. And so until we learn more thats. Pretty much all i wanted to mention check out the relevant links in the description below subscribe. If you still havent share this with someone who learned about space and sciences and maybe come back tomorrow, to learn something else, maybe support this channel on patreon by joining the channel membership or by buying the wonderful person t shirt you can find in the description. Stay.