Oh yeah yeah it’s it’s a it’s a lot longer you’re right, but that is one of the things. But just but you’ll see that i mean i i’m i’m, the guy. You know, because of my fringe pop channel i’ve read all the literature, but you know king tut and his family and all the different. You know genetic and other abnormalities. I didn’t – i didn’t put it up here, but you can see that there is actually a lot of variation like one of the weird things about how homo sapiens are defined, which is a little bit racist. Is that we kind of use a european skull to define what homeless um? Well, i mean, i say, it’s a little bit racist right now because i don’t think it’s intentionally that way now. But it was very racist in the past right, yeah yeah and if you look at the variation there are um homo sapiens. So, for example, aborigines in australia native australians will have like a wider skull like a longer skull, but nothing that approaches this actually um. What you would see is that aborigines look really close to the european in a skull, but quite different from this um. So this is, if you put uh, if you put some of tuts family up here on the screen, they would have the elongated feature, but they would lack some of the other ones. Yeah yeah and it turns out neanderthals all have these features and they’re all very prominent too um.

So what are some other things you see so oneness to the left, but also i mean it’s the shape too right. This is like a football streak, and this is like a soccer ball yeah. The angle of the jaw is, is obviously different yeah, so they didn’t have a chin. So you can see here it’s just flat and it goes down like that, but then the homo sapiens. You got this chin like this right, yeah, um thicker. You know the i don’t know right here. The cheekbone is much thicker yeah yeah. So this is. This is a lot thicker it’s, because um they were actually at a much stronger bite than we would have had so there’s, a muscle. That is what allows you to chew right here. We have it here too, but there’s this progressive, narrowing of this channel, where that muscle goes um and there. If you go back farther in our lineage, i mean, if you go all the way chimpanzees. You see there’s like actually like a mohawk bone right here that the that the muscle would connect to which gives them a really really strong bite compared to us, because the muscle connect here and up there, they don’t have that because they’ve actually smoothed it out. But you can still see it’s a lot broader there anything else you see well, the early eyebrows are thicker yeah, and this is another example where you do see. Um people alive today that are not neanderthals.

That will have a bump oops. Sorry of a bump like that, but it’s never on the bone side, it might look big on from the outside, but it’s never on the bone side, quite as as as big as this um. So you never really see a human skull that has a bump that big at least a modern human skull. I should say homo sapien now um. There are people today that have neanderthal genes in them, and we and that and some of those genes actually might influence skull shapes. So if you did find a person that had a bigger than normal bump, it might actually because of neanderthal genes they have now. I was going to say that the skull sutures are different, or at least i i can discern them on the left. I can’t really discern much of them on the right, except for the one that would be behind the ear yeah well in general. What’S going on is that there’s just a lot more and they’re just a lot more robust, thicker bones here. The other thing you can see too is that the nose is very different. They had a much wider nose. You can see that better if we turn them but there’s, just a lot of differences here. Um it’s kind of in this place, where in artificial intelligence we’d say that it was an uncanny valley where uh it’s it’s human, but not within the normal range of humans.

So it looks a little bit weird. What would what would a? What would a gorilla skull look like in comparison to this or one of the great apes? Well, this would look far more like a human than a gorilla skull, so gorillas have big fangs that come down here. They have that bone mohawk that i thought told you about that goes up like this, like as ridge, and they have a far flatter forehead. So you can see here that another thing here is that this, the forehead is really sloped that’s part of, like the whole football shape versus the soccer ball shape, but uh for apes, it’s, it’s more and more. It just kind of goes straight straight back like that, and you can kind of see a pretty smooth transition from things that look like this to looking more like apes. As you look back in our lineage but um neanderthals are you know you know among the most recent, if not the most recent, now we don’t we don’t know of any neanderthals that are alive right now. We think they all died out about. You know about 40. 000 years ago, but they, but they look really different and what what actually what they first discovered, was a piece of the skull. That was like the top part kind of cut off here. So they saw these really prominent ridges and they saw that it was. It had a different slope and they saw that it was just a lot larger now, one theory that was out there that i learned was that maybe these are just people who really lived to a very, very, very old age or had some sort of disease.

The thing that doesn’t really work about that is, we see so many of them all over the place, so it doesn’t really make sense as a disease. In that sense, also uh i mean they weren’t, like localized in one particular area they’re all over europe, and if some people think that denisovans were basically the asian neanderthal, so then they’re also all over asia. The other thing that’s that’s really important about it, is that we see kids too. We actually have children neanderthals that we see in the in the fossil record, and so if it was just like the products of people like aging to hundreds of years and we’ve, never really seen a person live that long before. But we wouldn’t see kids that look like neanderthals too right, so so they’re kind of the spot um, where we’re not really sure what to make even people. When they first started looking at them, they were really trying to figure it out. Um one of the other weird things about them. Is this bone here? Do you see this that’s the hyoid bone um? If you, you might be able to feel yours, you probably you might have thought it was only cartilage but it’s like a bone that um that cornrowers will really examine to see if a person is strangled to death because it’ll break when you, when you get strangled For example, it’s also right by your adam’s apple and here’s, one of the weird things about the hyoid one right now on earth.

The only species on earth that has the hyoid is are humans and and the reason why that’s important is it turns out that that bone is pretty important for speech. Okay, yeah, so yeah animals out there can make all sorts of noises, but humans have a really high control of our ability to speak, which ends up becoming really important for language right and hyoid is really important for that, like if you, if your higher point is Broken it becomes a lot harder to talk now it turns out that neanderthals have hyoid bones too.