We could use quantum computers to simulate molecules, build new drugs and new materials and help physicists solve problems that are left unsolved for decades. Qcs could be used to optimize portfolios, affect economic forecasts and for complex risk analysis. It could also help scientists pace up discoveries in fields such as machine learning and artificial intelligence companies like amazon, google, ibm, microsoft, regetty and d wave are all betting big on quantum. There are some simply excellent financial opportunities in quantum computing that’s. Why there’s so much interest, although the true potential of quantum lies years ahead of us, its implications are a sure thing. You might have already guessed what we’re going to talk about in today’s, video you’re on tech. This and today we’ll explore the world of quantum and talk about google’s ambitions to build a qc before we move on don’t forget to like this video and subscribe to our channel for tech content on your way, let’s get started quantum supremacy dealing with the bizarre nature Of quantum physics creates some significant hurdles for this emerging technology. From the very beginning, it was understood that building a functional quantum computer would be a challenging engineering problem if it was even possible. Some notable physicists in the 1990s were so skeptical about this technology that they didn’t even think it would work. Quantum is always destined to be the technology of the future. Never the present. In october 2019, google made a big announcement. Google said it had achieved quantum supremacy that’s the moment when quantum computers can beat out the world’s most powerful supercomputers for specific tasks, they’ve demonstrated with a quantum computer that it can perform computations in seconds the world’s fastest supercomputer would take years thousands of years to do That same calculation, this is known as quantum supremacy and it’s a milestone.

In physics and technology, google used a 53 qubit processor named sycamore to complete the computation, a completely arbitrary mathematical problem, with no real world application. The google quantum computer cooked the answer in about 200 seconds. According to google scientists, it would have taken the world’s fastest computer around 10 000 years to develop a solution with that google claimed it had won the race to quantum supremacy but ibm had an issue with the findings. Ibm is a significant player in quantum computing. One of its massive supercomputer networks at the oakridge national laboratories in tennessee could simulate a quantum computer and theoretically solve the same problem in a matter of days, not the 10 000 years that google had claimed either way. It was a massive milestone for quantum computers, and silicon valley is taking notice, funding. Venture capital. Investors are pouring hundreds of millions of dollars into quantum computing startups, even though practical applications are decades away. Private investors have backed at least 52 quantum technology companies around the world. Since 2012., many of them were spun out of research teams at universities, companies received at least 450 million dollars in private funding more than four times the funding from the previous years that’s. Nowhere near the amount of funding going into a field like artificial intelligence about 9.3 billion dollars with venture capital money poured into ai firms in 2018, but the growth in quantum computing funding is happening quickly for an industry without an actual application.

30 000 users. All over the world difficult conditions for qcs it’s, not easy to figure out how to use a quantum computer to do something useful, so nature gives you this very, very bizarre hammer in the form of this interference effect among all these amplitudes and it’s up to the Quantum computer scientists to figure out what nails that hammer can hit that leads to some backlash against the hype and concern that quantum computing could soon become a bubble and then dry up just as fast as progress stalls. Quantum computers are also highly unreliable. They need tightly controlled environments to operate in changes in nearby temperatures and electromagnetic waves can cause them to mess up and then there’s the temperature of the quantum chips themselves. They need to be kept at temperatures colder than the cosmos close to absolute zero. It is how we are chartering the path of creating these libraries. How does qc work? One of the fundamental ideas of quantum physics is called superposition. That means a subatomic particle like an electron can exist in two different states. At the same time, it was, and still is, super hard for ordinary computers to simulate quantum mechanics because of superposition. It was only in the 1980s that a few physicists, such as the nobel laureate, richard feynman, had the fantastic suggestion that why not make lemonade out of the lemons that nature’s giving us you’ve, probably heard or read this explanation of how a quantum computer works classic computers.

The ones we use run on bits bits can either be a one or a zero they’re called binary numbers. Quantum computers, on the other hand, run on quantum bits or qubits qubits can either be one or zero or both or a combination of the two simultaneously. Here comes the superposition according to scott aronson, a professor at the university of texas, who said well, let me start with this: you never hear your weather forecaster say we know there’s a negative 30 chance of rain tomorrow. That would be just nonsense right. The chance of something happening obviously lies between zero percent and a hundred percent. But now quantum mechanics is based on numbers called amplitudes. Amplitudes can be positive or negative. In fact, they can even be complex numbers involving the square root of a negative one. So a qubit is a bit that has amplitude for being zero and another amplitude for being one. The goal for quantum computers is to make sure the amplitudes leading to wrong answers. Cancel each other out and scientists reading the output of the quantum computers are left with amplitudes, leading to the right answer of whatever problem they’re trying to solve. You got these single states that, in this case, we’re seeing moving the sphere but notice. What does a qc look like? So what does a quantum computer look like in the real world? The quantum computers developed by companies such as google, ibm and righetti were all made using a process called superconducting, and this is where you have a chip, the size of an ordinary computer chip, and you have tiny coils of wire in the chip, which are pretty enormous.

By the standards of qubits they’re nearly big enough to see with the naked eye, you can have two different quantum states of current flowing through these coils that correspond to a zero or a one. And of course you can also have the superpositions of the two. Now the coil can interact with each other, so they’re laid out rectangularly and the nearby ones can talk to each other and thereby generate these very complicated states, which we call entangled states. One of the fundamentals of quantum computing: the way that the qubits interact with each other is fully programmable. To simplify things for you, you can send electrical signals to the chip to say which qubits should interact with each other and at which time now, for this to work, the whole chip is placed in that evolution refrigerator. The refrigerator is so cold that the temperature inside is 100 of a degree above absolute zero that’s, where you get the super conductivity that allows these bits to behave as qubits. We have the quantum processor itself where we perform those operations. Ibm’S efforts, ibm’s research, lab in new york houses, several quantum computers already hooked up to the cloud. So far, companies are trying to get used to quantum computing. Rather than do business using it. Quantum computers need exponentially more qubits before they start doing anything useful, ibm recently unveiled a 53 cubic computer, the same size as google sycamore processor. To get to real business problems.

These companies would need hundreds of thousands of qubits, so you can see quite many developments and doubling every year or perhaps even a little faster is what we need to get us there that’s. Why it’s a decade out at least quantum computing would need to see some big advances and more extensive advances than what occurred during the timeline of classical computing we’re talking doubling every year and occasionally some massive jumps implications of qcs. So what can qcs really do? Scientists? First came up with the idea of quantum computers as a way to better understand quantum mechanics, that’s, still the primary purpose for them. It also holds a more profit potential. For instance, the caffeine molecule, if you’re a caffeine freak you’ve ingested. Billions of caffeine molecules so far. Today, now, if computers are really that good, we should take a molecule and represent it precisely in the computer, and this would be great for many fields, including healthcare, pharmaceuticals, creating new materials producing unique flavorings anywhere. Where molecules are in play. So suppose we start with this basic idea of caffeine. In that case, it turns out it’s impossible to represent one simple, tiny caffeine molecule in a classical computer, because the amount of information you would need to define it. The number of zeros and the ones you would need are around 10 to the power of 48. Now that’s a significant number that’s one with 48 zeros following it. The number of atoms on the earth is about 10 to 100 times that number.

So in the worst case, one caffeine molecule could use 10 percent of all the atoms in the earth. Just for storage that’s never going to happen, however, if we have a quantum computer with 160 qubits – and this is a model of a 50 cubit machine, you can kind of figure it out if we make good progress. Eventually, we’ll get up to 160 good qubits, classical computers and other potential uses come from wall street, complex risk analysis and economic forecasting. Quantum computing also has considerable potential for portfolio optimization. Perhaps the most significant business opportunity out of quantum computing in the short term, is simply preparing for their widespread use and try and understand them. The implications for this are huge with regards to security risks. Companies and governments are already attempting to quantum proof, their most sensitive data in secrets. In 1994, a scientist named peter shaw came up with an algorithm that proved quantum. Computers could factor huge numbers much more quickly than their classical counterparts. That also means quantum computers are powerful and efficient enough that they could theoretically break rsa. Encryption. Rsa is the type of encryption that underpins the entire internet. Quantum computers would need millions of qubits to crack rsa cryptography the way they’re built now, but that milestone could be decades away and governments and companies are beginning to get ready for it. It wouldn’t concern us, but, for example, if health records are opened up that could compromise all kinds of things.

Government communications banking records are also at risk. Sometimes, even banking records from decades ago contain essential information that you don’t want to be exposed, but we don’t know when we’ll be able to do this, or even, if we’ll ever build one big enough to do this. However, what we do know is that if you don’t update your cryptography now, all the messages you send over the next few years and the ones in history could potentially be read what this means. For example, if you’re selling networking equipment you’re going to offer quantum safe encryption as an option very shortly, because even though it doesn’t look like you, need it right away, if your product doesn’t have it and a competitor does guess which product gets bought the issue in Building a qc one big issue facing quantum computing other than increasing the number of qubits, while keeping things stable, is that no one actually knows the best way to build a quantum computer. Yet the quantum computers at google or ibm are very much still experiments, there’s. Also, a significant education gap, not many people are studying quantum computing, yet china is pouring billions into quantum computing education. The u.s congress passed a law in 2018, called the national quantum initiative act to help catch up, watching people get rid of him, which means that you want to invest in them. Now you want to be hiring people with quantum computing knowledge, not necessarily to do quantum computing, but because you want that intelligence in your organization, so that you can take advantage of it when it does show up with its promised 10 billion dollars in it.

China is increasing stakes in terms of the number of chinese quantum physics phd’s that will start appearing, and you know if that life extension drug happens to be the property of the chinese government. What does that do to the world economy that’s much more powerful than making war right year on year basis, if we keep this space or even faster, that’s, all for quantum computers? Today we hope you learned something new and enjoyed watching our video thanks for watching and if you liked this video give us a thumbs up and subscribe for more videos, while you’re here, please go check out our other videos on our channel.

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