We’Re going to be talking about space hurricanes, the first ever detection of an actual space hurricane from right here on planet earth – and this is something we’ve actually never seen before. So let’s discuss this in a little bit more detail, because there are a lot of really cool things you might learn today. First of all, obviously, space hurricanes can actually mean a lot of things. A lot of the hurricanes would detect on jupiter and on saturn, for example, are, of course, space hurricanes as well. There are really large storms formed on other planets in space and we’ve. Seen a lot of these hurricane like formations on all of the major gas giants, including, of course, neptune and uranus, they all have different sort of creation stories. They also have somewhat different way that they act on the planet and how long they actually stay on the planet, but for the most part, that’s, actually not at all. What we’re talking about today, we’ve also seen certain type of hurricane like activity on mars, hubble telescope was actually able to take this snapshot right here approximately two decades ago, showing us that hurricane, like activity also happens in very thin martian atmosphere and the hurricane itself was Located right here in the northern hemisphere, specifically near the northern pole of mars, that was apparently four times larger than the state of texas and just like earth. They were formed in a relatively similar way. They were formed through the interaction of heat with cold weather and, although here on earth, the hurricanes are formed and powered by the warmth coming from the water itself.

Surprisingly, on mars, the heat came from the darker patches. You can actually see in this region right here which actually acted as the source of energy, for this pretty large cyclone to be able to form and to then navigate this region with the energy itself or the heat itself being produced by the sun, because those patches Are darker they would absorb more heat and thus be able to emit more heat long term, and then, of course, similar phenomena have also been spotted on the surface of the sun, and so in that sense, space hurricane is not actually clearly defined. It can hypothetically mean any of these things, but the new study that you can find in the description below describes a space hurricane as something happening here on earth, but actually in space right above our planet, literally a space hurricane. And this is exactly what the scientists in the paper were able to discover and although the existence of these space hurricanes has actually been implied in several other papers, this is the first time ever. It was actually physically confirmed and we now know they exist for sure. But it’s not a hurricane formed from, for example, moisture or formed from some sort of a gas. It was literally a plasma hurricane with the rain itself or precipitation being made out of electrons. So in other words, it was circulating. Plasma creating electron rain, which kind of reminds me of the chocolate ring that famous song by tay zonday, who is also apparently a regular viewer of the channel, hey tay anyway, so it turns out electron rain is a thing, but the question is: how does this all Work, and why exactly did we not know about any of this until now? Well, the how part is somewhat easy to answer.

Nobody actually noticed it until now. It was originally discovered back in 2014 in some of the satellite footage from defense meteorological satellite program. That consists of four satellites constantly collecting data and the data was there, but nobody actually connected the dots and since it didn’t involve any air and involved a lot of plasma air. It was actually somewhat difficult to recreate all of this data, but the scientists in this paper were able to do this and even created these images, as well as a 3d model showing us what’s, probably going on here, and if we were to try to simulate it. It would sort of look like this. It was kind of like a typical aurora, except that it was actually acting like a hurricane. It would change its shape. It would cycle around and would obviously also have a somewhat quiet center in the middle, yet extremely active cyclone like formations moving on the side, and although previously i mentioned that this is somewhat different from a typical hurricane. There are still quite a lot of similarities, mostly because it’s still technically gas, in this case it’s plasma or ionized gas, so it’s gas, that’s controlled by the magnetic fields, not so much by the effects of warm water. It also seemed to contain multiple spiral: arms like a typical hurricane and just like a hurricane, as i mentioned before, it also had precipitation, but it wasn’t rain, it wasn’t water. It was electrons something that you see illustrated in this image right here, but how this was generated is, of course, another question, so it seems that this was created because of two things.

First of all, it seemed to have only been possible because it was during the low solar activity. In other words, the sun was not producing a lot of plasma headed our way, and so the plasma around the planet around planet earth was allowed to circulate and was allowed to expand more here’s. Actually, a really awesome simulation from nasa that’s going to show you what happened back in 2012 when a relatively large and relatively powerful flare or technically coronal mass ejection hit planet earth. It sort of decreases the amount of plasma right next to the planet and also obviously changes a lot of the magnetic lines as well. So this event, as you can see, was pretty powerful and then regularly. It kind of looks more like this and in 2014, when the solar activity was much lower, it allowed more plasma to form around the planet, which also created a somewhat interesting motion of the magnetic lines toward the north of our planet, while at the same time allowing The magnetic lines to reconnect and thus create a kind of a current continuity that lasted for several hours and basically allowed the northern hemisphere of our planet to experience this hurricane, like effect or another way of thinking about this, is, as these magnetic lines started to reconnect, They created enough energy to allow the ionosphere to flow in one single direction in a circle around the central region, which then, in effect created everything else, including the precipitation of electrons and potentially a lot of other effects which might be explored in some of the future.

Studies but more importantly, we now think that this is probably a universal effect. It might actually exist on other planets and potentially can exist in much much larger capacity on planets like jupiter and saturn that do have a much stronger magnetosphere. It seems that the magnetic lines kind of create this effect and so the stronger the magnetic lines, the more hurricane like activity. You should be detecting in space as well and since juno mission is still active around jupiter. It might be able to provide certain answers once the scientists know what to look for and what kind of data to analyze, since this is a completely new discovery. Nobody really knows if these exist around other planets, but what this discovery also implies. Is that assuming we know what to look for, and also assuming that these space hurricanes do exist around other planets? We might be able to use this to detect magnetospheres of other planets, and since this study suggests that these hurricanes only happen when the solar activity is at the minimum. This might also lead to a lot of new studies in regards to the solar activity or to the activity of other stars as well. By detecting these space hurricanes around other planets, we might be able to find out how active certain star systems are. So, in other words, this actually presents an important opportunity for studying, exoplanets, but also for studying planets in our own solar system and at the same time, we still don’t really know if it affects life here on planet earth.

But since it does produce a very interesting electron rain, we might actually want to look into this. We don’t really know if it’s dangerous and if it is dangerous. Maybe this is something we need to be aware of, but anyway it’s definitely a cool discovery. On that note, that’s kind of all i wanted to mention in this video, mostly because there’s really very little. We know about this really cool phenomenon, new phenomenon from planet earth. On that note, once we’ll learn more i’ll make sure to follow this up with another video. Until then, thank you for watching subscribe.