# Quantum mechanics, System, Computing, Physics, Qubit : A Game-Changer for Modern Cryptography

Um this problem is called quantum computing, so uh. Anyone watch uh ant man and the wasp that’s, where this uh this image comes from um, so the quantum realm right um, if you ever spend some time and try to understand quantum mechanics quantum physics, uh you’re gon na – have a really bad bruise on your brain. It’S gon na hurt um. I don’t know that there’s anybody on planet earth that truly understands quantum physics and quantum mechanics it’s, just it’s very mind: boggling um there’s, a there’s, a couple of um what’s, the term there’s a couple of principles that go along with quantum physics that can make it Very difficult to understand, one of them is called quantum entanglement, and this is where you could have two photons or two particles that become uh, entangled with each other quantum entanglement, um and so think of. Like think of a star, you look up at the night sky and you see a star that’s, what 10 billion light years away? Well, when these particles or these photons are entangled um, when you do something to one, it does something it does the opposite to the other um it doesn’t matter how much time or space exists between them. So when the light from that star that that you know the light’s been transmitting across space for 10 billion years, finally hits your eye right as soon as it hits your eye. Well, if it’s, you know, the photons are entangled the photon back at that star 10 billion years ago.

Something happens to that that photon as well, but that was 10 billion years ago. How could something happen to that photon? Does that make sense like it like there’s? No way to grasp some of this stuff, so um we’ll just go with we’ll just go with what i got here and uh the rest. You can go read up on stephen hawking and einstein and try to figure it out. But anyway, let me get to to how this applies to uh, cryptography and encryption. So um, you know in classical computers, computers that we’ve got today. Everything is bits right. Everything is zeros and ones. Okay, um easy enough. Now, in quantum computing, in the quantum realm, we have something called qubits in which qubits can be zero or one or it can be both at the same exact time again right, it’s, like um, you ever go to the refrigerator and uh like you know how, like You open your refrigerator. The light turns on if you ever like, sat there and tried to go. Hmm is that light really off when the doors closed and you like you, try to close the door and then open it real, quick to see if the lights off you ever do try to do something like that: um! Well it in in the quantum world yeah, the light can be off and the door can be open at the same time, kind of crazy. So this is called. This is called the principle of superposition.

Okay, when you can be a zero and you could be a one at the same exact time – okay, um it’s, again kind of mind. Boggling. Let me um. Let me try this. Let me drop out of this, so just to kind of give you a comparison of of how you can think of how. How is it possible for zero and one uh to exist? How can you be zero and one at the same time? Let me let me drop out of the the slideshare here um, so what i’ve got here? I’Ve got some polaroids film, okay and i’m, going to try my best to do this remotely here. This is literally just film like, like polarized sunglasses right, you ever polarized sunglasses on it. You kind of look sideways at like your computer, monitor um, you know, or or maybe a tin tinted car window and it like it gets dark. And then you, you turn right side and you can see through it again right, um, so that’s that’s, what these are they’re polarization uh films, um and their filters. They filter light. So what i do is i’ll take two of them and if i’ve i’ve got one, i see the glare on my my screen here. So i apologize and see if i can maybe i’ll hold it slanted. So if i hold one and it filters, uh horizontally and i’ve got a second one and i filter it vertically. Theoretically, uh it’s going to block all of the light and it looks like it’s, pretty dark, full disclosure.

These are a little cheap. These were my cell phone here, so you can see the light on my cell phone pretty bright and uh. Just pretend that it’s filtering all of the light. Okay, i still see a little bit of my cell phone coming through but pretend it you know again: it’s the cheap ones. What do you expect so pretend it’s filtering all the light? Okay, so i’m filtering theoretically 100 of the light. Okay, so two filters put together. I filter 100 of the light all right now, if you know logic, would tell you if i added a third filter. What should happen well, if i’m filtering 100 with two filters and i add more filters, i should still be filtering 100 of the light. I could add, as many as i want it should still be 100 i’m already already 100. I can’t go any higher than 100, but here’s what happens if i add a third filter in here and i’m going to do this at 45 degrees. Give me a minute now: look what happens so here’s here’s the two filters right kind of dark here’s, the three filters all of a sudden lights getting through. So how with two filters, am i getting no light three filters? I get light again. How does that work that doesn’t make logical sense? Does it um that’s, probably the best comparison? I could give you to how something could be zero and one at the same exact time uh.

Let me see if i can switch back over here to my my stuff. All right there we go so um, so that’s kind of superposition there and that’s a problem that gets explained with quantum physics. Now these quivets that i mentioned, that can be zero and one at the same time um. They allow us to have a lot more possible states in a computer, so in other words um, you know. If i have 10 bits in a computer, i can have 10 possible states right of zeros or ones, but if i have 10 qubits in a quantum computer i can have a thousand states and so on and so forth. You can see that on the slide there it goes up if i have 30 qubits. Suddenly i have a billion possible states that i can have. You can see how very quickly exponentially things get. You know bigger and bigger, or faster and faster um. So there are certain problems that a quantum computer can do uh. You know – and this is still kind of theoretical, but it’s coming down the pike, but it can do things a lot faster than a classical computer. In fact, it can do it exponentially faster. So remember that example that we had that big n that we said okay, try to factor that that big number well for a quantum computer piece of cake. We can factor that into its two prime numbers, no problem all of a sudden.

Now this is an issue right, remember with rsa. If we can take that n that went across the wire – and we can factor that n into the 2 p and q, suddenly the system’s broken, we can get everything that’s the issue with quantum computing it’s it’s, going to help solve some problems, such as rsa mathematical Problems and diffie homing key exchange problems. We didn’t really touch on that one, but it’s gon na it’s gon na solve some of these mathematical problems that we rely on to be very, very hard. It’S gon na turn them into very easy problems. There’S a lot of wording on that slide. You don’t have to read it all um. The bottom line is rsa elliptic curve, cryptography, uh, diffie, hellman key exchange are no longer going to be secure once quantum computing becomes a real thing. There’S a research paper that says once we get a computer with 4 000 qubits we’ll be able to break rsa 2048, which we probably use rsa, 2048, 3072 and 4096. Those are probably the two or two or three rsa strikes that we use. So once we get 4000 qubits in a quantum computer and it’s stable and everything works, suddenly we’ve got an issue right. Our asymmetric cryptographic ciphers that we’ve been using all the way till today no longer are going to work very well. Our symmetric, ciphers they’ll be about half the strength, so remember: aes, it’s, a symmetric cipher you’ve got aes 128, 192 and 256.

. So as long as we’re using aes 256 cut that in half, we can still get about 128 bits of security. We should be okay. For now, with aes that’s the thought but asymmetrically we’re going to be in trouble um, if you want any uh, you know, do any research or look into this more shores algorithm. You can look that up on wikipedia that’s, your cipher that’s, going to explain how some of these things are going to get broken brian. I know we’re getting close to the end here on time. I’Ve only got a couple minutes left as well, so i should be done here within just a couple minutes if that’s all right to keep going here, no worries adam. Do your thing here. All right, just uh, just want to leave it with uh, where we’re headed here, um, so quantum crypto um. Our government saw this coming as a threat uh around 2016. um and they made a an announcement. They said hey every any national security system. Any government system now has to use a minimum of stuff that you see here in the chart in the table. Again i didn’t get into most of this. You can see a couple of these that you should recognize now. Rsa, you need to use 3072 or larger aes 256, only so for government computers. These are the minimum that are allowed to be used at this point um. So when it comes to breaking this quantum cryptography when that’s the big question, when is this going to happen? So, according to nist right national institute of standards and technology in april 2015, they made a guess.

They said there’s a one in seven chance that rsa 2048 gets broken by the year 2026 there’s a 50 percent chance that we break it by the year 2031.. Uh microsoft made a prediction in october of 2015. They said about 10 years and uh. Honestly, the running joke in in cryptography is and we’re always about 10 years away, but it’s like well. If you were 10 years away five years ago, how are you still 10 years away now well that’s kind of the writing joke, but um? So how? How close are we really here’s kind of the progress of where things are at intel? As of july 2018, they’ve got a 49 qubit quantum computer uh google, as of october of 2019 they’ve, got a 53 qubit machine called sycamore ibm as of september, which is just three months ago. They have a 65 qubit machine and they have promised a 1 000 qubit quantum computer by 2023 and they have plans for a 1 million qubit computer by 2030. So yeah this stuff is, is coming november 2020. So, just last month, uh honeywell has a fully connected 10 qubit computer, but they claim it’s more powerful than ibms do to the technology they use so it’s, not just in how many qubits you have, but it’s also how those qubits are being used all right. So progress is being made and you can see a lot of those companies. You know a lot of the big tech companies are involved in this uh september of 2019.

A google paper was leaked from nasa’s website uh, claiming quantum supremacy. What that means is uh. They claimed they were able to do an operation in 200 seconds that would take the world’s fastest supercomputers over 10 000 years to run so um now ibm came back out about a month later and said: nah that’s that’s shenanigans that wasn’t right there’s, no way that We could have solved that same problem with a classical computer. No, no, but it showed that there was progress being made just the fact that this came out um and then just seven days ago we could go today december 3rd, a chinese photonic quantum computer. I don’t even know how you pronounce that jizong uh reportedly solved a problem in three minutes 20 seconds and that problem on a classical computer would take 2.6 trillion years to solve. They did it in three minutes um now you know. Has this been substantiated? I don’t think so: um you know, could there be? Could this be a lie? Who really knows but the bottom line is things are moving, things are happening, quantum computing is coming and uh and that’s just the way it is so so what now um and i’ll be real, quick here, so i told you nist put out a or i don’t Know if i mentioned this nist put out a uh post quantum cryptography competition, it’s called the post quantum crypto project uh. You can go on to csrc.

nist.gov and read all about it um, but they said we need a quantum uh crypto resistant cipher to replace some of the stuff that’s going to be broken. So 69 submissions were received in november of 2017. They made a a cut in january of 2019. A third cut was made earlier this year july. 22Nd. 2020 are seven submissions remaining i’ve got them listed there they’re all based on this geometric lattice based mathematical model that they think is, is probably going to be. The the way ahead and so we’ve got seven finalists that are being scrutinized, tested, looked at it’s open to the community. Anybody can look at them and test them and play with them if they want. The fourth round cut is expected to be in late 2021 and then nist plans to release a standard for quantum resistant cryptography in 2022, so that’s kind of where the future is so we’ve got this plan to replace stuff here’s kind of my last slide here and This is where i leave you guys is the future safe. Are we in good shape, see? Nobody knows, because nobody knows when quantum computing will really become feasible right. It could be in just a couple years that the rate things are going. We got, you know, don’t bet against google’s and intel’s and honeywells and big companies right could be a few years. It could be 10 years still could be. 10 years could be 20 years right, nobody knows um, you know and we might have a standard released in 2022 uh by nist, which is good, however here’s the.

However, how long is it going to take for all of those you know for that standard to really propagate across the entire spectrum of everybody’s, browsers, everybody’s web servers, everyone’s machine right. Take a look at like windows. Xp windows xp has been an end of life for how many years now six seven years. Okay, do you know how many atms still use windows xp today, uh still a good chunk of them? I don’t know the exact number 20, maybe um. My point being it takes a long time to uh to merge into new technology. So once we have a standard that’s great, is everything going to be secure, or are we still going to be using the old stuff and that’s kind of where i, where i leave things at um quantum computing is going to be a big game. Changer uh at least that’s what it appears to be and um we’ve got a way ahead, but are we going to make it in time so that’s kind of the big question, so i apologize i i know we’re 703.

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