Billions of years ago, mars had a magnetic field and an atmosphere of similar density to earth’s. Today its temperature was above freezing and it contained massive amounts of surface water which formed a ocean covering the planet’s northern hemisphere. There was a climate and maybe even life. However, around 4 billion years ago, the convection in mars iron core, which generated its magnetic field, shut down with no magnetic field deflecting charged particles. Mars atmosphere was all of a sudden exposed to the solar wind over the next. Several billion years, solar, wind particles, slowly stripped mars atmosphere with no insulation temperatures, plunged all water either froze or slowly escaped through the atmosphere. Because of this, we are now left with the mars of today a freezing dusty wasteland. However, it is possible to terraform mars back into a habitable planet. With this comes many obstacles, the first is re establishing a magnetic field to protect mars. Several ideas have been introduced to fix this problem. The most promising is probably the magnetic shield concept between the sun and mars. There is a special point, called lagrange point, one where the gravitational attraction between the sun and mars cancels out. Therefore, anything that is put there will stay in equilibrium between the two bodies, by placing an inflatable magnetic dipole with a field strength of one to two tesla. At this point, we would create a magnetic field that would deflect solar, wind particles far enough to shield the entirety of mars.

By simply adding this shield, researchers have predicted that a greenhouse effect would begin on mars over millions of years. This would increase the planet’s temperature by about seven degrees celsius, facilitating the melting of mars polar ice. Eventually, one seventh of the planet’s former oceans would be restored, while protecting mars from the solar wind would be a huge feat. We could do much more to speed up the terraforming process. Currently mars has an atmospheric pressure of around 0.006 bars compared to earth’s one bar at sea level. Many ideas have been proposed to thicken. It mars has two polar ice caps, composed of both water ice and frozen carbon dioxide or dry ice. If we release large amounts of short lived but extremely powerful greenhouse gases such as chlorofluorocarbons, this would lead to a temporary greenhouse effect. The heating from this would turn some of the polar ice caps into gas. This gas would add to the greenhouse effect, raising temperatures and causing more ice to become gas. Eventually, all of the ice would turn into atmosphere. Doubling the planet’s atmospheric pressure. This process would require around ‘ million tons of chlorofluorocarbons three times the amount produced on earth between 1972 and 1992. This amount could be produced on mars and nuclear powered factories with local materials, in addition to vaporizing ice caps. If mars, regolith was heated, the co2 attached to it would eventually be released. This would add about .04 bars of pressure, a major increase.

Lastly, shallow carbon bearing minerals and ice clathrates could be mined and heated. Releasing another .017 bars of pressure with all these methods. Mars atmosphere could be heated enough to allow for the presence of liquid water. There would be weather in a global ocean covering the northern hemisphere. Still, though mars would be far from habitable. All this would increase the pressure to only 6.9 of earth’s to raise this level. It’S been hypothesized that carbon bearing minerals, deep in the crust could be mined and heated. This could raise pressure levels up to one bar. However, currently, the quantity of these minerals is unknown and this process would be incredibly difficult. Another solution is diverting ammonia, rich comets. In the outer solar system to collide with mars, this ammonia would quickly break down into hydrogen and nitrogen thickening the atmosphere. Lastly, we could import hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide from earth venus or saturn’s moon titan. These combined sources could get mars atmosphere up to one bar people. Would be able to walk on mars surface with no pressure suit and would only need a mask providing breathable air, but this is not enough. We want a breathable atmosphere at this point. Mars atmosphere would be primarily carbon dioxide, however, for humans breathing any atmosphere over one percent carbon dioxide would cause drowsiness and anything over 10 would likely mean death to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide, while increasing oxygen mars will go green right now. Martian soil has about a 0.

5 percent concentration of perchlorate, which is toxic to humans. In fact, it will provide a major health threat for early astronauts. However, some bacteria naturally consume perchlorate. These bacteria, combined with filtering systems, can eliminate the toxic chemical. Meanwhile, we can release microbes and mosses around the planet. These will spread making healthy soil while turning carbon dioxide into oxygen. During this time, ozone will also be mass produced to establish an artificial ozone layer. Slowly, larger plants will be incorporated into the environment. Fertilizer will help lighten and enrich the soil. However, due to the relatively low light levels on mars, only certain plants will be able to survive gradually. Martian forests, grasslands, coral reefs and other habitats will develop. Farmland will be established, growing food for humanity’s, expanding interplanetary population and, finally, after adjusting it to perfection, the martian atmosphere will be breathable over millions of years due to mars small size and therefore minimal, escape velocity. Some of this atmosphere will slowly escape, however, occasional resource imports will manage this. With everything in place, animals will be released into the wild and millions will emigrate to the planet. Still, though, life on terraformed mars would be very different from earth, the gravity would be only 38 of earth’s, which local populations would have to adjust to. In addition, each martian day would be 24 hours and 37 minutes long, and each year would be 680 days long. Also, there would be a lot less light than earth and with no major moon there would be no tides since mars has a similar tilt to earth.

There would still be seasons, however, because mars has a much more elliptical orbit around the sun. These seasons would be much more erratic, with no mountain chains and almost all the water in one hemisphere, the planet’s climate would be very different from earth’s. Furthermore, a lack of plate tectonics would mean no recycling of carbon, water or land over millions of years. On the positive side, though, there would be no earthquakes, volcanoes or tsunamis. However, there would likely still be huge dust storms. Lastly, the livable area would be much smaller than earth’s. Mars has only 28 of earth’s surface area in review. Terraforming mars is certainly possible. However, it would take hundreds or even thousands of years and would require technology and mega projects beyond humanity’s current capabilities right now. We should just focus on protecting earth. What do you think, will humanity eventually terraform mars let’s talk about it in the comments below. If you enjoyed this video, it would be amazing if you like and subscribe for more videos very similar to this one.