Regenerative medicine, Regeneration, Tissue, Cell, Skeletal muscle, Research ISSUE REGENERATION / STAGES OF WOUND HEALING IN ENGLISH.
So far we are discussing about the tissues, its types, everything. So it is the last topic that is the tissue regeneration. So when a tissue is being damaged or when it is being dead or worn out, so at that time something has to be replace the normal, the dead dead tissue or the dead cells or something. So what is happening. The process is called as tissue regeneration. So this is our today’s topic, so we will discuss about it, so tissue regeneration regeneration is a type of healing in which the new growth completely restores the portion of damaged tissue and gets it to the normal state. So something which is the dead tissue or the dead, the tissue which is being destroyed or some damage is being happening to the tissue. So at that time something is restoring, some tissue is being growing into into the lost tissue or the damaged tissue, so that process is called as the regeneration of the tissue. So now we can read regeneration, it’s, a type of healing it’s, a type of feeling with which the new growth completely restores the portion of the damage. So all the every each and every tissue in our body has its own function and own work. So at that time, if something is being damaged at that time, it has to be replaced by someone now. So when we are we, when we are going to leave us and we are working in some place – we are living on that day, so our work is being given to someone to manage that place know so that, like that, only so regeneration is happening in our Body, a part of organisms tissue that is being traumatized by external force or partially lost and based on the remaining part, it grows in the strains, same structure and function as the lost part.
This repair process is called tissue regeneration so when a tissue is being damaged or traumatized by external force, like something accident or something whatever cuts or wound, or something which is being happening in our body at that time, the remaining part which is being nearer to the Dead or the own out tissue it, it grows at the same structure and it replaces the functions of the last part, so that process is called as the tissue regeneration. So the tissue regeneration includes the regeneration of epithelial tissue, fibrous tissue, cartilage tissue bone tissue blood vessels. Muscle tissue and nerve tissue, so these are the places where the tissue regeneration is being happening in our body, so there are three general categories, so these are the three categories: how the tissues are being replaced regenerated. They are being classified into three categories. They are tissues in which cell replication is a continuous process regenerate quickly. So first, first one is they regenerate quickly that tissues are being categorized as number one, so they are the epithelial cells, skin, mucous, membrane, neutral, uterine, lining etc. So, for the best example is uterine learning, so we get menstruation every 28 and 28 days, so each and every time the uterus shed is in a layer and the what happens in 28 days. Again it grows back, so it grows back to its normal state. No so again it’s a continuous flow. It shares it. It grows, it shares its growth, so that is a continuous process.
So that is categorized as number one. So number two is other tissue. Has the ability to replicate, but do it infrequently so some some tissues? Do it infrequently once in a while they do it, but they can do it and they do it infrequently. So these tissues take longer time to regenerate so now here you can see it. For example, the uterus some someone, someone will be having 28 days cycle or 30 30 day cycle so whatever it may be. It happening within a month time. So but here it takes longer time to regenerate these include liver, kidney, smooth muscle. So these are the things where the tissues able to replicate. Do it in frequently take longer time so some cells are normally unable to replicate, including the nerves, so that is the neuron skeletals and the cardiac muscle, so the nerve cells, meaning that the damage tissue cannot be replaced extensively damaged. This is mainly replaced by the fibrous tissue because the function of the original tissues are lost. So here you can see here it can be, never reverted back. We can’t it can never go there. That cells are called the nerve cells. The neurons, which is in our brain so that cannot be replaced or that cannot be grown back so that the skeletal muscle, the cardiac muscle everything cannot be replaced. So what happens? The nurse is making the damage which can be replaced extensively. So, most of the time the extensor damage tissue is replaced by the fibrous tissue, the fibrous tissue it performs it uh helps the other cells which is being death or the own out.
That cell is being replaced by the fibrous tissue and it tries to put it effort to make the functions of the original tissue which is being lost so that uh is happening because of this fibrous fibrous tissue. So these are the three general categories, one it’s a continuous process, and it replicates continuously. That is this best example is uterine lining the second one is the roughly they do it infrequently. It takes longer time that is their liver circuit, nasal everything and the other. Last one is, they cannot be reverted back, they cannot be replaced, but it can be replaced up to some extent by the fibrous tissue. So next one is the stages of own healing. So when uh, when we are getting a wound or cut in our body, something is happening in our body know. So some process is being undergone. There are some phases or uh whatever you call phases or process. Ah, so that is called as the stages of cone healing, so first phase is called the hemostasis, so this you can get it as a fine mark as each and every every single phase or as a 20 percent of the uh. It has four phases. So all the four you can get it in a twenty month, question so phase one is the hemostasis space. Hemostasis is the first phase of healing, and this phase begins at the onset of injury and the main function is to stop bleeding.
I have made it into a simple english only so that it will be easier for you to understand. So, if you’re reading it twice, you can just understand the concept. So hemostasis is the first days first phase and this phase begins at the onset of injury when a cut or injury, something is happening in your body immediately. This phase starts and the main function is to stop the bleeding. So what happens immediately when we are having a wound, for example, we are having a cut cut in a hand or finger, or something at that time, bleeding occurs. So what happens with hemostasis? First, the bleeding is being stopped. So in hemostasis, the body activates emergency repair system, which is the blood clotting system, and it forms a dam to block the drainage to prevent the breathing. So what happens is immediately? A body is designed in such a way that when a body in a cut is happening and the blood is flowing at that time, the body immediately produces a blood clotting system in our body, um so and it forms a dam to block. So, however, when we are taking a tumbler or something a pot or something there will be a small hole and the blood will be licking in there, so what what we do? We try to fix it with. We feel we seal it with something. No so at that is that is being done by something called the platelet plated.
So we will see in this during this process. The platelet comes in contact with the collagen resulting in the activation and aggregation. What happens when a bleeding is being happening? The platelets, it just forms a mesh like something it forms as a block. It prompts a block and prevents the blood from flowing, and it just sealed the place where the bleeding is happening. So there is an enzyme called thrombin which is at the center and it initiates the formation of fibrin mesh, which strengthens the platelet clumps into a stable clot. And here you can see the fibrin, the thromb, the that is an enzyme called thrombin in a body which forms a fibrin which forms a fibrin. So these two forms a fibrin mesh mesh like something so that it is being uh sealed into a stable clot. Stabilizes is being just strong enough to hold the blood from flowing out, so that is, that is being happening by the platelet and the fibrin. So this is the process. This is the process which is happening in the hemostasis space. So, second is the defensive or the inflammatory phase so, as the name says that defensive, something which is being protecting our body from from something and the inflammatory some inflammatory process is happening in our body. So if the phase one, if if the phase one is primarily about coagulation, the second phase, called the defensive or inflammatory phase, focuses on destroying the bacteria and removing debris, essentially preparing the own bed for growth of the new ratio.
So what is happening is the pha in the phase one. It is about the coagulation. Something is being clotting no, but in the defensive, inflammatory phase it is destroying the bacteria and removing the depress means. The the the remaining part which is being which is dead or whatever is not needed for the body. That is called the debris, which is uh, which is we, which is to be eliminated from the body, so that that that things are being cleared out in this defensive order, inflammatory which helps for the growth of the new tissue. So during phase 2, the neutrophils, which is a type of wbc, enters the wound out to bacteria and remove debris. So what happens? This neutrophil, as you can see here, is the neutrophil which is entering the body and it uh. It is the one which uh clears the removes the bacteria and the debris, so the neutrophils, the type of wbc, multiplies at the own site between 24 and 48 hours after the injury, reducing greatly in number after three days. So what happens immediately between 24 to 48? Does for the first, the clotting will be happening immediately, the neutrophils comes there and it clears the remove the bacteria and the difference. So it happens between for 24 to 48 hours. It happened and it greatly reduces after three days. So this is the first thing happening. So what happens next is that as a wbc, the white blood cells leave the site.
A specialized cell, called macrophage arrives to the continue for the clearing of debris. So, as you can see here, the neutrophils in the macrophage, so these both are helping in the defensive or the inflammatory force. So first the neutrophils comes, and then it goes. The macrophage comes so the macrophage also secrete a growth factor and protein that attracts the immune system cells to facilitate the tissue repair to one side. So what happens in the macrophage? It again cleans the it up. It produces the growth factors and protein that attracts the immune system cells immune system in the body. The immune system cells are being present, so that is being attracted by this macrophage, and it also facilitates the tissue repair by how it is being facilitating in inflammatory phases lasts about four to six days. It is mostly associated with edema erythema or the reddening of the skin heat and pain. So normally, when we are getting a wound or injury, you can see that any more swelling sometimes will be there or erythema. The reddening of the skin will be the heat. We can feel some warmth over that place and pain will be there. So these are the four things so the water so neutrophils and the macrophages it helps in removing the bacteria and the debris and this inflammatory process it it it can. It can be identified by swelling pain, warmth and drain, so you can see the macrophages comes and clearing the depress, so this happens to the defensive or the inflammatory.
So third phase is the proliferative phase. So when the wound is cleaned out, the wound enters the proliferative face where the main function is to fill and cover the wound, so everything is being cleared and it is set for growing of the new tissues that is being happening in this proliferative phase, so covering Of the wound should be done so the proliferative phase uh have three distinct stages. They are filling the wound, so wound should be felt contraction of the wound. So the when you can see that when we are having a cut there will be a split between two edges will be there, so that has to be closed. That has been contracted. No, so margins of the wound has to be contracted, so that happens and covering of the wall, so ah, above that, a covering should be done to make both the own margins to be set as the normal one. So that is being that is called as the epithelialization. These three process happening. What is the filling of the wound? Contraction of the wound and covering of the wound? Um that happens so here, as you can see here, that the wound is being present. The new blood vessels are being regenerated and something is being filled over. There filled in this place that the granulation of the tissue is happening. So these are the things which is happening, so we can discuss in detail. So during the first stage, the filling during the first stage, that is the filling on a shiny, deep red, granulation tissue, fills the own bed with the connective tissue and a new blood vessels are formed.
As you can see here, the granulation tissue you can see here and the new blood vessels are being formed so during the second stage, the contraction of the margins, that is, the wound, margins contract and pull the margin toward the center of them. So the what happens? This both uh, this moon margins, will be contracted. They are pulled towards the center so that it it closes and the healing process will be uh moved to the next level. So the third stage, the covering the wound, epithelialization, that is the epithelial cells, arise from the own bed or margins and begin to migrate across the wound bed in a leapfrog fashion until the wound is covered with epithelium. So what happens? This is the epithelial cells multiply and fill over in the granulation tissue. The hepa cells will epithelial, cells will be formed, uh will be arised here and they and they have what they happen, is a leapfrog prussian, so how a frog will be jumped from one place to other uh it. It will be leaping. You know so at like that the epithelial cells will believe from one over the other and cover the whole wound, and the margins will be closed, so that is being helped by this epithelial cell. So now we can read in third stage they’re covering their own reputabilization. The epithelials arise from the old bed or the margins and begin to migrate across our own leapfrog fraction. So they will.
They will just complete this own bed and they will fill this place until the wound is covered with epithelium. So the proliferation lasts from 4 to 24 days, so first happens with the granulation of the tissue, it happens and the wound margins will be pulled towards the center and epithelial cells will be filling the wound, in a leapfrog fashion, to cover the open moon. This happens in 24 days, so last one is the maturation phase. So first is the hemostasis phase. Second, is the defensive or inflammatory phase? Third is the proliferator, and course is the maturation or the remodeling phase. So these are. These are the last one. So healing begins with hemostasis what the healing first stage starts with hemostasis and during the maturation phase the new tissue matures slowly and gains its strength and flexibility. What happens here? It gains its normal it. It tries to gain the normal strength and flexibility. So the collagen fibers reorganize the tissue and remodels and measure the what happens: the collagen fibers inside it. When, for example, when we are getting a new visitor to a house, they have to adapt to us they have to. We have to match with everyone so like that it is like a new thing. No, so it is coming inside, it is being formed nearly inside the body, so it has to be recognized by each and every everything of the body and it has to mature. So that is being happening.
This collagen fiber has been happening in this maturation phase. There will be an overall increase in the tensile strength through the maximum strength is limited to 80 percentage of the thing so, whatever happening a new tissue is happening, so it can be performing up to 80 percentage of the original tissue because it’s something replacing that it Can’T be replaced whole completely. It is the strength of the new tissue will be up to 80 percentage of the strength of the old one. So in the maturation phase, the healing time varies greatly from wound to wound – often lasting from 21 to 2 years. So if the wound is very small, it can last in few days or months time, but if it’s a big wound it lasts up to two years completely the healing and the maturation everything it can be leading to two years. The healing process is remarkable and complex. It is also susceptible to interruption or due to local and systemic factors, including moisture infection maceration local and age, nutrition, size, nutritional status, body type, systemic etc. So here healing process it can be affected or interrupted and it can be uh altered due to from body to body age to age or sometimes, if the moisture is that infection can happen, masturbation or some uh, something according to a nutritional status with a protein. The intake is not there, the tissue formation will be more or less and the age for uh, oldest people, the tissue regeneration.
Everything happens very slowly, but um the body time um each and every body type is different. Now, so this can be altered. The healing process can be altered according to the these factors, it can be a little delayed or it can be if everything is proper. It can be very early for some people when the right healing environment and process is established in the body. It works in wondrous ways and can replace the vitalized issue. So if the healing environment, all these things are very normal and it’s very proper, this process is works in wondrous ways and can replace the normally the devitalized tissue can be replaced very quickly. So it happens between 21 days to two years now, so sometimes it can happen between a month time or six months or anything so like that it can be happened with very early and quickly. So this is, we are concluding so four phases, hemostasis inflammation or defensive, inflammatory proliferation and the remodeling or the maturation phase. Here, as you can see here, epiderm is the first layer. The middle layer is the dermis subcutaneous layer, so here the blood vessels that is being blood supply, is being being provided here. So first, what happened? The fibrin and the platelet, they form a mesh like thing and the neutrophils and macro they will clear the um clear. The debris and the bacteria everything and the next you can see they will the granulation of the tissue happens, the epithelialization happens and they will start uh growing.
The new blood vessels will be start growing and the blood supplies will be restored. The last is a remodeling phase. The collagen mattress will be mature and will be adapted to the all the other blood vessels and all the system in the body and they slowly regain strength up to 80 percentage. So these are the four phases of the own healing. So, thank you. So much i’ve also made this video in tamil. If you want just have a look on it and we are to the next topic, we will see about a new topic and it will be so interesting. So please keep watching my videos and um also posted the same content in a blog in my blog, that is the blogger website. Then they say named as nursing. Abstract just have a look on it.