Now looking at the largest planet in our solar system, jupiter, so let’s dive into this giant of a jovian planet. So it’s named after the roman god of lightning or the king of the gods in roman culture, but it was first recorded back in the early 7th century bc by the babylonians, so it’s known throughout history by many different cultures by different names, for example it’s in The greek culture it’s known as zeus or faithian, it’s known as marduk by the babylonians sushwing by the chinese. I do apologize. My chinese is terrible i’m doing my best to learn it’s just really hard to pronounce some of the different words i am trying to learn, but, despite all its different names, it’s been known throughout the cultures as to be this wandering star in the sky, but it Was galileo, who first took a deeper look at this planet? Now he wasn’t the one to first create the telescope. He was the first one to basically take a telescope and look up at the sky, and with that he was able to see unique, different features on different celestial bodies in the sky, including jupiter. In fact, this image right here is sketches of what he made of the planet, so he was able to get the first detailed recordings of what the planet looks like up close and personal, including four of its largest moons, which have been dubbed the galilean moons, because They were first discovered by galileo himself, they’re known as io, europa, ganymede and callisto.

So these four moons were used as pieces of evidence for galileo to present to the church to say: hey, maybe the earth isn’t in the center of our solar system. What, if it’s the sun like copernicus proposed, i have all these different observations that indicate that maybe the earth isn’t in the center so let’s look at some more basic information of this planet. Let’S look into the numbers: shall we so one year on jupiter takes roughly about 12 years here on earth, meaning it takes about 12 years on earth for jupiter to complete one orbit around the sun or for it to revolve around the sun once, but for as Long as it takes to go around the sun once it makes up for in its day one day, meaning one rotation of jupiter is roughly 9.9 hours or 10 hours so for every one day here on earth, jupiter experiences two days, which is crazy. It rotates incredibly fast for its size, but even though it rotates incredibly fast, it’s, incredibly cold near the upper parts of the atmosphere, the temperature on the upper parts of the atmosphere is roughly negative, 150 degrees, fahrenheit, so it’s really cold out by jupiter. Now it starts getting hotter, as you start going down into the layers of jupiter, because, as jupiter’s gravity presses in on the gas, the pressure starts to condense, the gases to where it starts to heat, up kind of like a pressure cooker now i mentioned jupiter – is The largest planet in the solar system, just to give you a rough idea how big this planet is.

If you took all the other planets, you could fit them all inside jupiter, so saturn, uranus, neptune, earth, mercury, venus mars, took all those planets and opened up jupiter. You can fit all the other planets inside comfortably crazy right. In fact, just to give you another kind of scale. 1 400 earths could fit inside jupiter it’s huge it’s known as a jovian planet, because beyond the asteroid belt there’s a line known as the frost line that’s, where most your gas giants lie and i’ll explain what the frost line is in just a minute. So in the inner solar system you have the four rocky planets and on the out outer solar system, you have what are called the jovian or gas giant planets. Now jupiter is incredibly massive, all the masses of the planets. So if you literally put all the planets on a scale and put jupiter on the other side, it would still be twice as massive as all the other complaints combined it’s, huge and massive and to date, has roughly 79 moons and we’re hoping to discover more as Uh juno goes around in orbit around jupiter, so what did i mean by the frost line? Well there’s a particular line out in space it’s, not a physical line. It’S, an imaginary line at this particular boundary is where you have the extent where hydrogen compounds and lighter elements that were once vaporized now start to condense. This is what is known as the frost line where it gets so far away from the sun that it’s so cold.

That gases that were once in gaseous form are now starting to condense, into ice, crystals and liquids. So on the inner part of the solar system, where temperatures are warmer and the solar wind is pushing out the lighter elements that’s where you get the leftover rocks and metals that condense into the rocky planets. But beyond this frost line the limits to which these gases vapors start to condense, into ice crystals, which then they start to become heavier and because they intermix with other materials as they’re pushed out that’s when they start to condense and start to build up in the Outer parts of the solar system and since there’s so much material that’s being pushed out, the gas giants had a ton of material to start to grab to can condense into the planets that they are, whereas in on the inner solar system, there was just only a Few rocks so, hence why many of the inner solar system planets are small rocky planets, whereas in the gas giants out in the outer solar system, since there was so much material, they were able to get big all right, so let’s dive into the atmospheres of jupiter To understand what’s, going on inside the gas giant now we have sent a probe inside jupiter, but it didn’t last very long. It was the galileo probe and within a few thousand feet of the atmosphere it experienced lightning. It had high winds of about 400 miles per hour and the pressure there was like being underneath one mile of and being down below the ocean one mile.

It was incredible harsh pressures, harsh conditions in trooper’s upper atmosphere and it didn’t last very long, but for what we did gather and along with the juno mission, which is currently in orbit around jupiter right now. It has a similar structure to that of our sun. It has multiple different layers and has radiative zones, and these different zones basically can control the unique features of jupiter and how it interacts. It has a huge magnetic field. So that indicates us that it possibly has a metallic core of some kind. Now, whether this metallic core is some type of liquid hydrogen or a metallic hydrogen, or if it’s, actually iron core, we don’t know, but we do know that it does have a metallic core of some kind, because it has this huge magnetic field that extends out well Beyond the planet – and we also have seen aurora now – aurora, northern and southern lights here on earth, we see these beautiful greens, which indicate oxygen in our atmosphere, whereas in on jupiter, it kind of has these neon purples, which indicate some of the different gaseous compounds on Jupiter so as we go through the gas clouds of jupiter, this is kind of what you’re expecting so each of these different gas layers that you see represent different types of materials. So, on the top part of the troposphere, you have ammonia, which condenses into those cream colored clouds that you see and those dark brown clouds that you see are your ammonia, ammonium, hydrosulfides, so sulfur kind of compounds and then, underneath that you start getting your water to Condense to form clouds – and in here this is where it starts getting dicey, because since it rotates so fast, the vertical bands start to go in fast directions, plus there’s.

A lot of things that intermix in between and we’ll explain that in a minute. So since it rotates so fast, the bands go in straight lines. Now, unlike here on earth, where you have the jet streams, that kind of do worked and twisty things. The bands on jupiter go in straight lines because it rotates so fast and the different bands represent the different cloud layers that you can see and because it rotates so fast and you have all this ice material and everything that’s intermixing. You start to get lightning at lower temperatures as well. As you start getting these mush ball. Storms like imagine, like the worst type of hail storm ever and that’s what you’re experiencing on jupiter. Now i wanted to show you this really cool video, because, with the juno mission, nasa was able to kind of create this fly through the clouds of jupiter montage, Music, Music Applause, so Music, pretty neat huh. So what you were kind of seeing is basically diving in through the clouds and going through some of the different belts and zones of jupiter. Now, as i mentioned, with those different layers because as cool air starts to sink warmer starts to rise. So like talk about that radiation zone because it kind of goes similar in our sun, where the cooler stuff starts to sink and then it heats up and it starts to rise and creating the cycle that’s kind of what’s going on within jupiter.

Not only do you have the bounds going like going vertical, but they’re kind of going in a cyclonic sort of way going through the upper atmospheres, and so by doing this kind of unique zonal wind pattern, you get unique types of storms and things of that nature. For example, like jupiter’s great red spot it’s, a anticyclonic tropical storm, now many people think oh it’s, a hurricane, but no, no it’s a tropical storm because it’s a high pressure zone surrounded by two low pressure zones and it’s, been known since 1665, when it was first Recorded by a galileo, but we suspect, it’s been there for thousands of years and just to give you a rough idea, how big this storm is, all the rocky planets could fit inside the storm. It’S huge and the winds that are going around in this circle have been clocked at roughly 400 miles per hour now. Some astronomers believe that it’s slowly starting to decrease in size, but other storms have picked up around the area as well, so what’s going on inside this storm and how it was able to exist for several thousands of years now. These are the three satellites that were able to get some rough idea of what’s going on now. Juno was able to take radio waves and look at the downwelling that’s going on so as hot as a high pressure as the coal material starts to go down. It starts to come up in that one particular area, and since you have the bounds going like this, it starts to create this cyclonic sort of twist and we notice that at lower atmosphere temperatures we start to get lightning now.

This was a unique feature because you normally have in order to get lightning. You have to have certain temperatures, but at certain temperatures well below freezing, we start to experience lightning. So this could be a unique feature given jupiter’s atmosphere. Now about those mush balls, i wanted to talk about, so this is how you get mush falls now, sometimes in those little storms like those little white storms, you basically with the updrafts of the hot materials starting to come up, some of the ice still sticks with Me like materials like such as ammonia and other types of sulfides, as well as other types of heavier elements, and since those heavier elements can get stuck with ice, they start to turn into these weird mush balls. So imagine like the worst type of hail, so you can get hailed on you can get struck by lightning. You can get crushed. You can get blown away. It’S. All sorts of craziness on jupiter now jupiter has been visited by several planets, has been visited by several different satellites for many different reasons. Most of the time, it’s, usually to use jupiter’s immense gravity as a slingshot method, to either head out to the outer parts of the solar system or to slingshot back around to a different planet. But these are the ones that have specifically visited jupiter like they wanted to stay around jupiter pioneer 10 and 11. First took images of its orbit and up close and personal view.

Now voyager wanted to. Yes, they did sling out, but it was intended to visit jupiter with voyagers one and two with voyager one. They were able to take a look at many of the different moons beyond the four, including they’re, to able to take a good up close and personal. Look of io notice that it was a volcanic moon and some of the different features of the four galilean moons and understand its huge magnetic field. Um, voyager 2 was able to take some of the first images of the rings of jupiter. Now you may think. Oh only saturn has rings when in actuality all the gas giants have rings it’s just saturn’s is the most epic it was just jupiter’s is just this faint thin ring that goes around the planet, it’s, nothing to notice or even take note about and it’s very difficult To see so, hence why many people don’t recognize that jupiter does have a ring, but it indeed it does. And, of course, we sent the galileo probe into jupiter’s atmosphere and juno is basically understanding the at the atmosphere using radar and also has a magnetometer which helps it to understand jupiter’s magnetic field and how it affects all the other moons around jupiter like it really does Unique features with io because since it’s, a volcanic moon, some of the particles from io go up into the magnetic field of jupiter and with a new possible mission coming out from the european space agency, you have the jupiter icy moon explorer, which is hoping to take A look at europa now europa is a unique moon, because there it’s suspected that there might be a liquid ocean underneath the surface of this unique moon.

So where can you see it right now? Well, you have to get up really early in the morning really early. In the morning, if you look towards the east, roughly close to sunrise, you’ll see the bright star close to the horizon, that is jupiter and right. Next to it are the planets, mercury and saturn. So if you’re willing to get up a little bit extra early you’ll be able to check out this amazing gas giant. If you have any questions or comments, leave it down in the comments below. If you have a topic, you would love for me to cover over.