The first is hybridization hybridization and the second is going to be mechanical manipulation, which we’ll focus a little bit more in uh for the majority of this topic. So hybridization is the very traditional way of going about things. We’Ve been you know doing this since mendel, right, yeah little mendelian selection and his peas, yeah. So hybridizing, you know hybridizing plants, um, hybridizing, uh dogs – is, i guess, another great example, but yeah the bottom line is this is done throughout um generations and generations of breeding trying to select for the traits that you want um and then discarding the traits that you Don’T want – and you know some of the downsides to this process – are that, yes, it is a very, very slow time consuming process. You have a lot of variation in the results that you’re getting and there’s always a random chance of getting something unexpected that you really enjoy out of it and that’s. How actually a lot of new yeast strains that we have today have kind of come about not necessarily on purpose, but a lot of the breweries? Historically, especially american breweries that have proprietary yeast strains right now they had wild yeast interacting with yeasts that are traditional over many many many years, and then they were able to select. You know against batches that sucked and four batches that they liked, and so they ended up with their own house strain that’s kind of a genetic mix of the two but anyways.

That was how use was selected for uh. You know over time and a lot of yeast that we have especially like americanized lager strains, are lager yeast that came over from germany uh. You know during the great brewery revolutions that we had pre 1900s and they just interacted with wild yeast, because there’s no perfect way to store yeast back then yeah and uh didn’t have lager yeast here yeah and they just they. They mold it even today’s lager yeast. In like old world, german breeze have hybridized over the last hundreds of years and so that’s why we kind of don’t have perfect lager and ale yeasts anymore they’re. All this mixed genetic mess yep. So we’ve talked about hybridization, which is this. You know this mixed gene pool uh, where you can add certain yeast with certain uh properties, but let’s also talk about mechanical mechanical manipulation, which has become very, very popular since uh, just the last few years. Yeah i mean in yeast specifically the last few years, but i want to say we really started doing this research in like the mid 1990s. Maybe early 2000s so we’ve been messing with genetics for a while, but uh recently we’ve gotten good at it, especially when it comes to yeast and so it’s, very, very accessible, uh and let’s talk about mechanical manipulation, specifically for yeasts that we have right now, which are The sundew and the bonanza and how that came to be and uh what’s cool about it and what that means for the future yeah i went to eastern for biology and we uh.

We had this brand new thing called the crispr cast pathway that came out and it has to do with gene editing and what what they found is that uh in certain bacteria there were these pathways and these proteins that could actually go into a piece of dna. Um and then actually cut out specific parts of that dna that and then you could use that to either put into something else or just take or remove entirely from another organism. And what made this kind of mind blowing is that the original thing that we learned about was was whoa. We could actually find like certain genes that cause diseases in humans and potentially remove those um, but now here we are four or five years later and making even better use out of it, and some brewers got a hold of it. We’Re, not saving people, but we are making better beer here. Yeah right and some brewers got ta get a hold of it and they’re like wait. What so we don’t have to have clove in our beer yeah so specifically, we’re talking about here is the crisper cast. 9 system and that’s, probably the simplest and most basic form of the any of the crispr cast gene editing tools that we have, because it can specifically target a certain spot on the dna sequence using what’s called guide rna that guy rna basically finds the genetic code. That c, that codes for right before, where you want to cut and right after where you want to cut, and it attaches a protein called the cas9 protein, and that is just a clean slice in that area.

And then it makes the cell freak out and go like hey i’ve got to fill in this genetic material, so it fills it in with random stuff, and that could code for nothing probably usually codes for nothing but every once in a while. It might cook for something – and so you do this over and over and over again until you get a product that you want: that’s, viable, sustainable and all of a sudden, you have a yeast that has all the same flavors that it had before, but without specifically In this case, phenol producing uh proteins, so let’s let’s talk about what all this entails. First of all, it entails knowing the dna sequence that codes for a certain production of you know, in this case, a certain like phenol production, um and we’re, specifically focusing on four vinyl glycol, which is uh the clove fennel. Now the reason that this is important for these is because you have very very flavorful yeast that we’re working with um in the bonanza. The case is that’s the fire and stefan yeast strain, but we’re able to cut out that four vinyl glycol production and maybe some other phenol productions that are very dominant in the flavor and so by removing those we’re kind of able to uncover the other flavors yeah, Which is where the uh the sundew yeast comes from and that one um they actually say that it’s got a really nice uh, berry, melon, um profile to it um, and that one we can’t couldn’t quite figure out exactly what like the base strain was that they They used for it, but we figured some belgian stream, probably an abbey strain and um, and by removing that uh that clove uh uh gene that produce or the gene that produces the clove flavor there.

We go that’s that’s, how we should say the phenolic producing gene um, you actually let all those like really melony berry type. Flavors come to the surface. That would normally be mass by that strong clove production let’s go on to some other applications. That might happen in the near future and other ways we might be able to uh see things somebody shut down this mrna, we might be able to see some stuff get manipulated in the future. This is complete speculation. I don’t know if it’s been done or is being worked on being done, but one of the things that comes to my mind is just deletion of the gene that produces sta1 or the sta1 gene that’s, the one that produces amylase enzyme that’ll, basically super attenuate your Beers, i feel like deleting that will open up a few strains um to people that might be can have concern about them. Uh creating bottle bombs, get some say zones that are thick with three c’s yeah. What i see this leading into is basically fast tracking. Our way through getting new yeast, where before it was kind of like random, like hey, we found this new yeast or hey we’ve, been like blending these yeast for forever, and now we have this nice. This is kind of a fast track to be like hey. Can we create this flavor like what else can we do and so it’s kind of, like? I think we’re going to see that curve where we saw with hops for a while, whereas hops were like you know, flavors of hops were like this for a while and then all of a sudden we figured out.

You know how to you know, organize plots and breed in a certain way sure that you selected for a certain uh. You know oil production all of a sudden we’re like anyways yeah, that sums up that topic biology, pickup line – oh god, oh god, hey, hey, baby you’re, one you’re, one tall genetic sequence. I wish i was dna helicase, so i could unzip your genes.